Now showing items 21-40 of 14864

    • The impact of transportation mode, socioeconomic deprivation and rurality on travel times to radiotherapy and surgical services for patients with prostate cancer: a national population-based evaluation

      Han, L.; Sullivan, R.; Tree, A.; Lewis, D.; Price, P.; Sangar, Vijay; van der Meulen, J.; Aggarwal, A.; The Christie NHS Trust, Manchester, UK (2024)
      BACKGROUND: The distances that patients have to travel can influence their access to cancer treatment. We investigated the determinants of travel time, separately for journeys by car and public transport, to centres providing radical surgery or radiotherapy for prostate cancer. METHODS: Using national cancer registry records linked to administrative hospital data, we identified patients who had radical surgery or radiotherapy for prostate cancer between January 2017 and December 2018 in the English National Health Service. Estimated travel times from the patients' residential area to the nearest specialist surgical or radiotherapy centre were estimated for journeys by car and by public transport. RESULTS: We included 13,186 men who had surgery and 26,581 who had radiotherapy. Estimated travel times by public transport (74.4 mins for surgery and 69.4 mins for radiotherapy) were more than twice as long as by car (33.4 mins and 29.1mins, respectively). Patients living in more socially deprived neighbourhoods in rural areas had the longest travel times to the nearest cancer treatment centres by car (62.0 mins for surgery and 52.1 mins for radiotherapy). Conversely patients living in more affluent neighbourhoods in urban conurbations had the shortest (18.7 mins for surgery and 17.9 mins for radiotherapy). CONCLUSION: Travel times to cancer centres vary widely according to mode of transport, socioeconomic deprivation, and rurality. Policies changing the geographical configuration of cancer services should consider the impact on the expected travel times both by car and by public transport to avoid enhancing existing inequalities in access to treatment and patient outcomes.
    • Frequency of naevus cells in lymph nodes of melanoma and breast cancer patients

      Green, Adele C; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Grant, Megan; Marais, Richard; Cook, Martin G; Molecular Oncology Group, CRUK Manchester Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK (2024)
      INTRODUCTION: We aimed to study the frequency (prevalence) and histology of benign melanocytic naevus cells in regional lymph nodes in relation to age and sex and nodal location. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Histopathology reports of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsies from melanoma patients, 2002 - 2014, and from breast cancer patients, 2010- 2019, were obtained from records of a single hospital in England. All sections were similarly processed and examined. For standardisation, presence of naevus cells was assessed in a single node per patient: the first SLN biopsied (melanoma) or the node nearest the first SLN (breast cancer). RESULTS: Associations were tested using Fisher's exact test. Naevus cells were found in 10% (60/585) of melanoma patients' index SLNs. Frequency varied significantly by anatomic region: 13% in axillary to 0% cervical SLNs (p = 0.03), but not by sex or age. Within nodes, naevus cells were present in capsular or pericapsular tissue (93%), or trabeculae (7%). In breast cancer patients' index axillary nodes, 6% (11/196) contained naevus cells, all intracapsular. In the predominant 40-69 years age-group, prevalence was similar in breast cancer (7%) and female melanoma (9%) patients, but in those aged 70-100, prevalence was lower in breast cancer (2%) than in female melanoma (15%) patients (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Standard methods of assessment yielded no clear pattern of naevus cell frequency in lymph nodes by age or sex, but confirmed naevus cell location as mostly intracapsular.
    • Repotrectinib in ROS1 fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer

      Drilon, A.; Camidge, D. R.; Lin, J. J.; Kim, S. W.; Solomon, B. J.; Dziadziuszko, R.; Besse, B.; Goto, K.; de Langen, A. J.; Wolf, J.; et al. (2024)
      BACKGROUND: The early-generation ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that are approved for the treatment of ROS1 fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have antitumor activity, but resistance develops in tumors, and intracranial activity is suboptimal. Repotrectinib is a next-generation ROS1 TKI with preclinical activity against ROS1 fusion-positive cancers, including those with resistance mutations such as ROS1 G2032R. METHODS: In this registrational phase 1-2 trial, we assessed the efficacy and safety of repotrectinib in patients with advanced solid tumors, including ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC. The primary efficacy end point in the phase 2 trial was confirmed objective response; efficacy analyses included patients from phase 1 and phase 2. Duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety were secondary end points in phase 2. RESULTS: On the basis of results from the phase 1 trial, the recommended phase 2 dose of repotrectinib was 160 mg daily for 14 days, followed by 160 mg twice daily. Response occurred in 56 of the 71 patients (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 68 to 88) with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC who had not previously received a ROS1 TKI; the median duration of response was 34.1 months (95% CI, 25.6 to could not be estimated), and median progression-free survival was 35.7 months (95% CI, 27.4 to could not be estimated). Response occurred in 21 of the 56 patients (38%; 95% CI, 25 to 52) with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC who had previously received one ROS1 TKI and had never received chemotherapy; the median duration of response was 14.8 months (95% CI, 7.6 to could not be estimated), and median progression-free survival was 9.0 months (95% CI, 6.8 to 19.6). Ten of the 17 patients (59%; 95% CI, 33 to 82) with the ROS1 G2032R mutation had a response. A total of 426 patients received the phase 2 dose; the most common treatment-related adverse events were dizziness (in 58% of the patients), dysgeusia (in 50%), and paresthesia (in 30%), and 3% discontinued repotrectinib owing to treatment-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Repotrectinib had durable clinical activity in patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC, regardless of whether they had previously received a ROS1 TKI. Adverse events were mainly of low grade and compatible with long-term administration. (Funded by Turning Point Therapeutics, a wholly owned subsidiary of Bristol Myers Squibb; TRIDENT-1 number, NCT03093116.).
    • Brief report: updated efficacy and safety data from an integrated analysis of entrectinib in locally advanced/metastatic ROS1 fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer

      Fan, Y.; Drilon, A.; Chiu, C. H.; Loong, H. H. F.; Siena, S.; Krzakowski, M.; Dziadziuszko, R.; Zeuner, H.; Xue, C.; Krebs, Matthew G; et al. (2023)
    • Response to letter to the editor from Shaorong Yu and Jifeng Feng

      Garassino, M. C.; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. (2024)
    • Glioblastoma and radiotherapy: a multi-center AI study for survival predictions from MRI (GRASP study)

      Chelliah, A.; Wood, D. A.; Canas, L. S.; Shuaib, H.; Currie, S.; Fatania, K.; Frood, R.; Rowland-Hill, C.; Thust, S.; Wastling, S. J.; et al. (2024)
      BACKGROUND: The aim was to predict survival of glioblastoma at eight months after radiotherapy (a period allowing for completing a typical course of adjuvant temozolomide), by applying deep learning to the first brain MRI after radiotherapy completion. METHODS: Retrospective and prospective data were collected from 206 consecutive glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype patients diagnosed between March 2014-February 2022 across 11 UK centers. Models were trained on 158 retrospective patients from three centers. Holdout test sets were retrospective (n=19; internal validation), and prospective (n=29; external validation from eight distinct centers).Neural network branches for T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted inputs were concatenated to predict survival. A non-imaging branch (demographics/MGMT/treatment data) was also combined with the imaging model. We investigated the influence of individual MR sequences; non-imaging features; and weighted dense blocks pretrained for abnormality detection. RESULTS: The imaging model outperformed the non-imaging model in all test sets (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, AUC p=0.038) and performed similarly to a combined imaging/non-imaging model (p>0.05). Imaging, non-imaging, and combined models applied to amalgamated test sets gave AUCs of 0.93, 0.79, and 0.91. Initializing the imaging model with pretrained weights from 10,000s of brain MRIs improved performance considerably (amalgamated test sets without pretraining 0.64; p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: A deep learning model using MRI images after radiotherapy, reliably and accurately determined survival of glioblastoma. The model serves as a prognostic biomarker identifying patients who will not survive beyond a typical course of adjuvant temozolomide, thereby stratifying patients into those who might require early second-line or clinical trial treatment.
    • Feasibility of abdominal fat quantification on MRI and impact on effectiveness of abdominal compression for radiotherapy motion management

      Daly, M.; McDaid, Lisa; Nelder, Claire; Chuter, R.; Choudhury, Ananya; McWilliam, A.; Radhakrishna, Ganesh; Eccles, Cynthia L; Department of Radiotherapy, The Christie NHSFT, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHSFT, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX Department of Clinical Oncology, The Christie NHSFT, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX (2024)
      The impact of fat on abdominal compression effectiveness in abdominal cancers was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Visceral and subcutaneous fat were delineated on T2W 3D MRI, and motion change with compression was measured on 2D cine MRI. Results from 16 participants showed no correlation between fat percentage, body mass index (BMI), and motion change. Median BMI was 28.7 (SD, 4.9). Mean motion reduction was 7.8 mm (IQR, 5.0; p = 0.001) with compression. While no direct link was found between fat, BMI, and compression effectiveness, abdominal compression remains crucial for motion management in radiotherapy planning, providing dosimetric benefits.
    • Immune checkpoint inhibitor related myasthenia gravis, myositis and myocarditis: a triad but not at the same time?

      Cooksley, Tim; Weaver, Jamie; McNamara, Mairead; Lorigan, Paul; The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom. (2024)
    • Tumour response to hypoxia: understanding the hypoxic tumour microenvironment to improve treatment outcome in solid tumours

      Bigos, Kamilla J; Quiles, Conrado G; Lunj, Sapna; Smith, Danielle J; Krause, M.; Troost, E. G.; West, Catherine M; Hoskin, P.; Choudhury, Ananya; Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Christie Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom. (2024)
      Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumours affecting their biology and response to therapy. One of the main transcription factors activated by hypoxia is hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which regulates the expression of genes involved in various aspects of tumourigenesis including proliferative capacity, angiogenesis, immune evasion, metabolic reprogramming, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, and cell migration. This can negatively impact patient outcomes by inducing therapeutic resistance. The importance of hypoxia is clearly demonstrated by continued research into finding clinically relevant hypoxia biomarkers, and hypoxia-targeting therapies. One of the problems is the lack of clinically applicable methods of hypoxia detection, and lack of standardisation. Additionally, a lot of the methods of detecting hypoxia do not take into consideration the complexity of the hypoxic tumour microenvironment (TME). Therefore, this needs further elucidation as approximately 50% of solid tumours are hypoxic. The ECM is important component of the hypoxic TME, and is developed by both cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumour cells. However, it is important to distinguish the different roles to develop both biomarkers and novel compounds. Fibronectin (FN), collagen (COL) and hyaluronic acid (HA) are important components of the ECM that create ECM fibres. These fibres are crosslinked by specific enzymes including lysyl oxidase (LOX) which regulates the stiffness of tumours and induces fibrosis. This is partially regulated by HIFs. The review highlights the importance of understanding the role of matrix stiffness in different solid tumours as current data shows contradictory results on the impact on therapeutic resistance. The review also indicates that further research is needed into identifying different CAF subtypes and their exact roles; with some showing pro-tumorigenic capacity and others having anti-tumorigenic roles. This has made it difficult to fully elucidate the role of CAFs within the TME. However, it is clear that this is an important area of research that requires unravelling as current strategies to target CAFs have resulted in worsened prognosis. The role of immune cells within the tumour microenvironment is also discussed as hypoxia has been associated with modulating immune cells to create an anti-tumorigenic environment. Which has led to the development of immunotherapies including PD-L1. These hypoxia-induced changes can confer resistance to conventional therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the impact of hypoxia on the TME and its implications for therapy resistance. It also discusses the potential of hypoxia biomarkers as prognostic and predictive indictors of treatment response, as well as the challenges and opportunities of targeting hypoxia in clinical trials.
    • Clinical research for global needs of radiation oncology

      Baumann, M.; Bacchus, C.; Aznar, Marianne C; Coppes, R. P.; Deutsch, E.; Georg, D.; Haustermans, K.; Hoskin, P.; Krause, M.; Lartigau, E. F.; et al. (2024)
    • Management of retrorectal tumours

      Bilkhu, Amarvir S; Wild, Jonathan; Sagar, P. M.; Colorectal & Peritoneal Oncology, The Christie Foundation NHS Trust, Manchester, UK. (2024)
    • Radiotherapy in metastatic bladder cancer

      Ashley, S.; Choudhury, Ananya; Hoskin, P.; Song, Y.; Maitre, Priyamvada; The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom. Manchester Biomedical Research Centre, Manchester, United Kingdom. (2024)
      PURPOSE: To review available and emerging evidence of radiotherapy for symptom management and disease control in metastatic bladder cancer. METHODS: A literature search and subsequent cross-referencing were carried out for articles in the PubMed and Scopus databases using terms 'radiotherapy' OR 'palliative radiation therapy' with 'metastatic bladder cancer' OR 'advanced bladder cancer' between 1990 and 2023, excluding articles with no English translation. RESULTS: Palliative radiotherapy is an effective and accessible treatment for the alleviation of haematuria and pain due to the primary and metastatic disease. With growing recognition of oligometastatic disease state at diagnosis, response, or progression, radiotherapy can consolidate response by ablating residual or resistant lesions. Experience with other primary cancers supports positive impact of radiotherapy on disease control, quality of life, and survival in oligometastatic stage, without significant adverse effects. Alongside immune checkpoint inhibitors, fibroblast growth receptor inhibitors, and antibody-drug conjugates, the immunomodulatory potential of radiotherapy is being explored in combination with these systemic therapies for metastatic bladder cancer. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy is an effective, safe, and accessible treatment modality for palliation as well as disease control in various clinical settings of metastatic bladder cancer. Its role in oligometastatic stage in combination with systemic therapy is expected to expand with emerging evidence.
    • The definition of clear resection margins in locally recurrent rectal cancer-time for consensus

      Brown, K. G. M.; Solomon, M. J.; Sutton, Paul A; Shin, J. S.; Steffens, D.; Colorectal and Peritoneal Oncology Centre, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK. Division of Cancer Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. (2024)
    • Gradual and synergistic correlation of tumor thickness and histological grade in penile invasive carcinomas

      Alvarado-Cabrero, I.; Fernández-Nestosa, M. J.; Valencia-Cedillo, R.; Urizar, C.; Cañete-Portillo, S.; Sánchez, D. F.; Cubilla, Antonio L; Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Manchester, M20 4GJ, UK. (2024)
      Histological grade and depth of invasion are among the best outcome pathological predictors in penile cancer. The TNM system is based on a combination of both for some stages. It is assumed that high-grade and deep tumors carry the worst prognosis, and the opposite occurs with superficial and low-grade neoplasms. However, there is no systematic evaluation of the phenomenon. We studied 147 patients from the Hospital de Oncologia - Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (period 2000 to 2013). They were treated by total or partial penectomies. Lymph node involvement was evaluated by bilateral inguinal node dissection (126 cases) or ultrasonography (21 cases). Tumor thickness was measured in mm from tumor surface to deepest invasion point, using a cut-point for superficial (≤10 mm) vs deep (>10 mm) tumors. Histological grade was from 1 to 3 according to WHO and AFIP criteria and considering G1 and G2 as low-grade and G3 as high-grade. Average age was 62 (26-98) years old. Tumor thickness mean was 15 mm (2-30 mm). G1, G2 and G3 tumors corresponded to 19 (13 %), 48 (33 %), and 80 (54 %) cases, respectively. Follow-up ranged from 10 to 82 months (median: 57 months). Fifty-three (36 %) patients died of disease. There was an overall correlation of tumor thickness and grade in most of the cases. Low-grade tumors were encountered in 92 % (12/13 cases) of superficial tumors. Deep tumors showed high-grade in 75 % of cases (73/97 cases). Superficial tumors with low histological grade had negative inguinal nodes and no mortality whereas deep tumors showing high histological grade were associated with high metastatic risk to lymph nodes (62/73 cases) and mortality (52/73 cases). Out of 24 deep tumors with low histological grade, seven had nodal spread (29 %) but only one died of disease. No outcome difference was found in HPV associated vs HPV independent tumors. Tumor thickness and grade are important synergistic and predictive pathological factors in relation to prognosis.
    • The future of cancer care in the UK-time for a radical and sustainable national cancer plan

      Aggarwal, A.; Choudhury, Ananya; Fearnhead, N.; Kearns, P.; Kirby, A.; Lawler, M.; Quinlan, S.; Palmieri, C.; Roques, T.; Simcock, R.; et al. (2024)
      Cancer affects one in two people in the UK and the incidence is set to increase. The UK National Health Service is facing major workforce deficits and cancer services have struggled to recover after the COVID-19 pandemic, with waiting times for cancer care becoming the worst on record. There are severe and widening disparities across the country and survival rates remain unacceptably poor for many cancers. This is at a time when cancer care has become increasingly complex, specialised, and expensive. The current crisis has deep historic roots, and to be reversed, the scale of the challenge must be acknowledged and a fundamental reset is required. The loss of a dedicated National Cancer Control Plan in England and Wales, poor operationalisation of plans elsewhere in the UK, and the closure of the National Cancer Research Institute have all added to a sense of strategic misdirection. The UK finds itself at a crossroads, where the political decisions of governments, the cancer community, and research funders will determine whether we can, together, achieve equitable, affordable, and high-quality cancer care for patients that is commensurate with our wealth, and position our outcomes among the best in the world. In this Policy Review, we describe the challenges and opportunities that are needed to develop radical, yet sustainable plans, which are comprehensive, evidence-based, integrated, patient-outcome focused, and deliver value for money.
    • Assessment of the environmental impact of clinical trials

      Darlington, Emma; Frost, Hannah; Patel, Alkesh; Descamps, Tine; Loong, Herbert; Alt, Marie; Bedard, Phillipe :; Graham, Donna M; The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK
    • Linking African ancestral substructure to prostate cancer health disparities

      Gheybi, K.; Mmekwa, N.; Lebelo, M. T.; Patrick, S. M.; Campbell, R.; Nenzhelele, M.; Soh, P. X. Y.; Obida, M.; Loda, M.; Shirindi, J.; et al. (2023)
      Prostate cancer (PCa) is a significant health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa, with mortality rates loosely linked to African ancestry. Yet studies aimed at identifying contributing risk factors are lacking within the continent and as such exclude for significant ancestral diversity. Here, we investigate a series of epidemiological demographic and lifestyle risk factors for 1387 men recruited as part of the multi-ethnic Southern African Prostate Cancer Study (SAPCS). We found poverty to be a decisive factor for disease grade and age at diagnosis, with other notably significant PCa associated risk factors including sexually transmitted diseases, erectile dysfunction, gynaecomastia, and vertex or complete pattern balding. Aligned with African American data, Black ethnicity showed significant risk for PCa diagnosis (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-2.00), and aggressive disease presentation (ISUP ≥ 4: OR = 2.25, 95% CI   1.49-3.40). New to this study, we demonstrate African ancestral population substructure associated PCa disparity, observing increased risk for advanced disease for the southern African Tsonga people (ISUP ≥ 4: OR = 3.43, 95% CI   1.62-7.27). Conversely, South African Coloured were less likely to be diagnosed with aggressive disease overall (ISUP ≥ 3: OR = 0.38, 95% 0.17-0.85). Understanding the basis for PCa health disparities calls for African inclusion, however, lack of available data has limited the power to begin discussions. Here, focusing on arguably the largest study of its kind for the African continent, we draw attention to the contribution of within African ancestral diversity as a contributing factor to PCa health disparities within the genetically diverse region of southern Africa.
    • One versus three weeks hypofractionated whole breast radiotherapy for early breast cancer treatment: the FAST-Forward phase III RCT

      Brunt, A. M.; Haviland, J. S.; Wheatley, D. A.; Sydenham, M. A.; Bloomfield, D. J.; Chan, C.; Cleator, S.; Coles, C. E.; Donovan, E.; Fleming, H.; et al. (2023)
      BACKGROUND: FAST-Forward aimed to identify a 5-fraction schedule of adjuvant radiotherapy delivered in 1 week that was non-inferior in terms of local cancer control and as safe as the standard 15-fraction regimen after primary surgery for early breast cancer. Published acute toxicity and 5-year results are presented here with other aspects of the trial. DESIGN: Multicentre phase III non-inferiority trial. Patients with invasive carcinoma of the breast (pT1-3pN0-1M0) after breast conservation surgery or mastectomy randomised (1 : 1 : 1) to 40 Gy in 15 fractions (3 weeks), 27 Gy or 26 Gy in 5 fractions (1 week) whole breast/chest wall (Main Trial). Primary endpoint was ipsilateral breast tumour relapse; assuming 2% 5-year incidence for 40 Gy, non-inferiority pre-defined as < 1.6% excess for 5-fraction schedules (critical hazard ratio = 1.81). Normal tissue effects were assessed independently by clinicians, patients and photographs. SUB-STUDIES: Two acute skin toxicity sub-studies were undertaken to confirm safety of the test schedules. Primary endpoint was proportion of patients with grade ≥ 3 acute breast skin toxicity at any time from the start of radiotherapy to 4 weeks after completion. Nodal Sub-Study patients had breast/chest wall plus axillary radiotherapy testing the same three schedules, reduced to the 40 and 26 Gy groups on amendment, with the primary endpoint of 5-year patient-reported arm/hand swelling. LIMITATIONS: A sequential hypofractionated or simultaneous integrated boost has not been studied. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-seven UK centres recruited 4096 patients (1361:40 Gy, 1367:27 Gy, 1368:26 Gy) into the Main Trial from November 2011 to June 2014. The Nodal Sub-Study recruited an additional 469 patients from 50 UK centres. One hundred and ninety and 162 Main Trial patients were included in the acute toxicity sub-studies. RESULTS: Acute toxicity sub-studies evaluable patients: (1) acute grade 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity reported in 40 Gy/15 fractions 6/44 (13.6%); 27 Gy/5 fractions 5/51 (9.8%); 26 Gy/5 fractions 3/52 (5.8%). (2) Grade 3 common toxicity criteria for adverse effects toxicity reported for one patient. At 71-month median follow-up in the Main Trial, 79 ipsilateral breast tumour relapse events (40 Gy: 31, 27 Gy: 27, 26 Gy: 21); hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) versus 40 Gy were 27 Gy: 0.86 (0.51 to 1.44), 26 Gy: 0.67 (0.38 to 1.16). With 2.1% (1.4 to 3.1) 5-year incidence ipsilateral breast tumour relapse after 40 Gy, estimated absolute differences versus 40 Gy (non-inferiority test) were -0.3% (-1.0-0.9) for 27 Gy (p = 0.0022) and -0.7% (-1.3-0.3) for 26 Gy (p = 0.00019). Five-year prevalence of any clinician-assessed moderate/marked breast normal tissue effects was 40 Gy: 98/986 (9.9%), 27 Gy: 155/1005 (15.4%), 26 Gy: 121/1020 (11.9%). Across all clinician assessments from 1 to 5 years, odds ratios versus 40 Gy were 1.55 (1.32 to 1.83; p < 0.0001) for 27 Gy and 1.12 (0.94-1.34; p = 0.20) for 26 Gy. Patient and photographic assessments showed higher normal tissue effects risk for 27 Gy versus 40 Gy but not for 26 Gy. Nodal Sub-Study reported no arm/hand swelling in 80% and 77% in 40 Gy and 26 Gy at baseline, and 73% and 76% at 24 months. The prevalence of moderate/marked arm/hand swelling at 24 months was 10% versus 7% for 40 Gy compared with 26 Gy. INTERPRETATION: Five-year local tumour incidence and normal tissue effects prevalence show 26 Gy in 5 fractions in 1 week is a safe and effective alternative to 40 Gy in 15 fractions for patients prescribed adjuvant local radiotherapy after primary surgery for early-stage breast cancer. FUTURE WORK: Ten-year Main Trial follow-up is essential. Inclusion in hypofractionation meta-analysis ongoing. A future hypofractionated boost trial is strongly supported. TRIAL REGISTRATION: FAST-Forward was sponsored by The Institute of Cancer Research and was registered as ISRCTN19906132. FUNDING: This award was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme (NIHR award ref: 09/01/47) and is published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 27, No. 25. See the NIHR Funding and Awards website for further award information.
    • Senescent cells in giant cell arteritis display an inflammatory phenotype participating in tissue injury via IL-6-dependent pathways

      Veroutis, D; Argyropoulou, OD; Goules, AV; Kambas, K; Palamidas, DA; Evangelou, K; Havaki, S; Polyzou, A; Valakos, D; Xingi, E; et al. (2023)
      OBJECTIVES: Age is the strongest risk factor of giant cell arteritis (GCA), implying a possible pathogenetic role of cellular senescence. To address this question, we applied an established senescence specific multimarker algorithm in temporal artery biopsies (TABs) of GCA patients. METHODS: 75(+) TABs from GCA patients, 22(-) TABs from polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) patients and 10(-) TABs from non-GCA/non-PMR patients were retrospectively retrieved and analysed. Synovial tissue specimens from patients with inflammatory arthritis and aorta tissue were used as disease control samples. Senescent cells and their histological origin were identified with specific cellular markers; IL-6 and MMP-9 were investigated as components of the senescent associated secretory phenotype by triple costaining. GCA or PMR artery culture supernatants were applied to fibroblasts, HUVECs and monocytes with or without IL-6R blocking agent to explore the induction of IL-6-associated cellular senescence. RESULTS: Senescent cells were present in GCA arteries at higher proportion compared with PMR (9.50% vs 2.66%, respectively, p<0.0001) and were mainly originated from fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells. IL-6 was expressed by senescent fibroblasts, and macrophages while MMP-9 by senescent fibroblasts only. IL-6(+) senescent cells were associated with the extension of vascular inflammation (transmural inflammation vs adventitia limited disease: 10.02% vs 4.37%, respectively, p<0.0001). GCA but not PMR artery culture supernatant could induce IL-6-associated senescence that was partially inhibited by IL-6R blockade. CONCLUSIONS: Senescent cells with inflammatory phenotype are present in GCA arteries and are associated with the tissue inflammatory bulk, suggesting a potential implication in disease pathogenesis.
    • Prostate cancer genetic risk and associated aggressive disease in men of African ancestry

      Soh, PXY; Mmekwa, N; Petersen, DC; Gheybi, K; van Zyl, S; Jiang, J; Patrick, SM; Campbell, R; Jaratlerdseri, W; Mutambirwa, SBA; et al. (2023)
      African ancestry is a significant risk factor for prostate cancer and advanced disease. Yet, genetic studies have largely been conducted outside the context of Sub-Saharan Africa, identifying 278 common risk variants contributing to a multiethnic polygenic risk score, with rare variants focused on a panel of roughly 20 pathogenic genes. Based on this knowledge, we are unable to determine polygenic risk or differentiate prostate cancer status interrogating whole genome data for 113 Black South African men. To further assess for potentially functional common and rare variant associations, here we interrogate 247,780 exomic variants for 798 Black South African men using a case versus control or aggressive versus non-aggressive study design. Notable genes of interest include HCP5, RFX6 and H3C1 for risk, and MKI67 and KLF5 for aggressive disease. Our study highlights the need for further inclusion across the African diaspora to establish African-relevant risk models aimed at reducing prostate cancer health disparities.