Patterns and temporal trends in the incidence of malignant disease in children: I. Leukaemia and lymphoma.
AffiliationCancer Research Campaign Paediatric and Familial Cancer Research Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, U.K.
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AbstractPatterns and trends in incidence of leukaemia and lymphoma in children aged under 15 years and resident in the North Western Regional Health Authority area of England at diagnosis, over the 35-year time period 1954-1988, were analysed. The study included 1407 cases registered with the Manchester Children's Tumour Registry, 100% of which had a histologically or cytologically verified diagnosis. Log-linear modelling identified significant linear increases in acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) (average quinquennial increase 4%) and Hodgkin's disease (HD) (10%), but not in acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia nor non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Additionally, the chi 2 test for trend identified a significant increase in the incidence of chronic myeloid leukaemia. The possibility that the increases seen in ALL and HD are linked to increases in prevalence of unknown infectious agents is discussed.
CitationPatterns and temporal trends in the incidence of malignant disease in children: I. Leukaemia and lymphoma. 1994, 30A (10):1490-8 Eur. J. Cancer
JournalEuropean Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
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Poly (ADP-ribose) metabolism in alkylated mouse L5178Y cells.Boyle, John M (1985-07)Poly ADP-ribosylation of two mouse lymphoma cell lines, L5178Y (LS) and the radiation and alkylating agent resistant derivative AII, was investigated by uptake of [3H]NAD by permeabilised cells into acid-precipitable material that was sensitive to phosphodiesterase but insensitive to DNase and RNase. Basal activities in both lymphoma lines were 3-4-fold greater than in mouse L1210 leukaemia cells. However, total endogenous poly (ADP-R) polymerase activity in both L5178Y cell lines, stimulated by a large excess of DNase in the presence of Triton X-100, was less than half the activity in L1210 cells. Doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) that produced 20-50% survival of colony-forming units increased poly (ADP-R) in both lymphoma lines by only 25% compared with 377% in L1210 cells when synthesis was measured immediately after a 30-min exposure of MNU. During the first 24 h after MNU AII cells produced a peak of activity that was not seen with LS cells. A second peak was seen in both cell lines between 24 and 48 h following MNU. Concentrations of 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) above 2.5 mM inhibited colony-forming ability of lymphoma cells and equally inhibited uptake of [14C]formate into protein, RNA and DNA indicating that 3AB behaves as a general metabolic poison. Concentrations of 3AB in the toxic range of 3-10 mM inhibited poly (ADP-R) synthesis but no degradation of the polymer was observed. Non-toxic concentrations of 3AB potentiated cell killing by MNU to a similar degree in both lymphoma cell lines. In conclusion, we have found little evidence to support the hypothesis that the differential sensitivity of LS and AII is related to poly ADP-ribosylation. Compared with other mouse cells, L5178Y cells appear deficient in poly (ADP-R) polymerase and poly (ADP-R) glycohydrolase activities.
Examination of temporal trends in the incidence of childhood leukaemias and lymphomas provides aetiological clues.McNally, Richard J Q; Cairns, Donal P; Eden, Tim O B; Kelsey, Anna M; Taylor, G Malcolm; Birch, Jillian M; Cancer Research Campaign Paediatric and Familial Cancer Research Group, University of Manchester, UK. (2001-10)The age-sex distributions and temporal trends in incidence of leukaemia and lymphoma from the Manchester Children's Tumour Registry (MCTR), 1954-1998, are reported. This 45-year study includes 1795 children, all of whom had a histologically and/or cytologically verified leukaemia or lymphoma. At the time of their diagnoses all the children were under 15 years of age and were resident in a geographically defined area of northwest England covered by the MCTR. Log-linear modelling identified significant linear increases in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (average annual increase 0.7%; P= 0.005) and in Hodgkin's disease (HD) (1.2%, P=0.04), but not in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), nor in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The increase in ALL was most pronounced amongst males, aged 1-4 years, and is likely to be due to precursor B-cell leukaemias. The increases in ALL and HD are discussed in relation to current hypotheses suggesting a role for infection. Additionally, a non-linear cohort effect was identified for NHL (P= 0.008), which may indicate the involvement of environmental factors other than infection.
Susceptibility of human leukaemias to cell-mediated cytotoxicity by interferon-treated allogeneic lymphocytes.Moore, Michael; Taylor, G; White, W J; Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester M20 9BX, UK (1982)Twenty-two human leukaemias, comprising acute phase leucocytes from 13 acute myeloid and nine lymphoid leukaemias, were tested for susceptibility to spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) by untreated lymphocytes and lymphocytes treated for 18 h with 250 IU lymphoblastoid (Namalva) interferon (IFN-alpha). IFN-amplified killing (IAK) by lymphocytes from 24 normal lymphocyte donors was checked on the K562 erythroleukaemia cell line, for comparison with IAK on fresh leukaemias. Nine leukaemias were tested with lymphocytes from three donors, nine with lymphocytes from six donors, three with lymphocytes from nine donors, and one with lymphocytes from 11 donors. Some degree of susceptibility to IAK was found in five acute myeloid and five lymphoid leukaemias, which was markedly dependent upon the source of the effector lymphocytes and did not correlate with the degree of IAK on K562. The 12 other leukaemias were virtually resistant to IAK. The results emphasize the variability in the capacity of IFN-treated lymphocytes to lyse leukaemias that have not been adapted to tissue culture. The basis of effector recognition of cell line and fresh tumour targets is discussed.