A homology model of the Id-3 helix-loop-helix domain as a basis for structure-function predictions.
AffiliationDepartment of Pharmacy, University of Manchester, UK.
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AbstractThe function of the dominant negative Id (inhibitor of differentiation) helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins is to dimerize with, and prevent the DNA binding of basic HLH (bHLH) transcription factors. A three-dimensional homology model was constructed for the HLH domain of human Id3 based on the X-ray crystal structures of the E47, MyoD, and Max bHLH proteins. The model showed that, in contrast to bHLH proteins, Id proteins appear able to dimerize without DNA stabilization because of better packing of the hydrophobic core, and the absence of destabilizing polar loop residues and of repulsive positive charges in the monomer interface at the base of the four alpha-helix bundle. This prediction was tested by in vitro protein-binding experiments, which showed that Id3 did indeed self-associate. It also showed that the inability of Id proteins to bind DNA arises from the non-basic, poorly defined, random coil structure of the region corresponding to that responsible for bHLH DNA-binding. A model of the Id1 protein was constructed and revealed a potential site of charge-charge repulsion in the hypothetical homodimer interface that may explain its observed inability to form homodimers.
CitationA homology model of the Id-3 helix-loop-helix domain as a basis for structure-function predictions. 1996, 1294 (2):138-46 Biochim. Biophys. Acta
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta