Vascular endothelial growth factors C and D and lymphangiogenesis in gastrointestinal tract malignancy.
AuthorsDuff, Sarah E
Saunders, Mark P
O'Dwyer, Sarah T
Jayson, Gordon C
AffiliationDepartment of Surgery, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
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AbstractVascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D are members of the VEGF family of cytokines and have angiogenic and lymphangiogenic actions. In gastric adenocarcinoma, VEGF-C mRNA and tissue protein expression correlate with lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis and in some reports, venous invasion and reduced 5-year survival. Patients with gastric adenocarcinomas containing high levels of VEGF-C expression have significantly reduced 5-year survival rates, and VEGF-C expression is an independent prognostic risk factor for death. The role of VEGF-C in oesophageal squamous and colorectal cancer and VEGF-D in colorectal cancer is not clear, with conflicting reports in the published literature. In order to exploit potential therapeutic applications, further research is necessary to define the precise roles of these cytokines in health and disease.
CitationVascular endothelial growth factors C and D and lymphangiogenesis in gastrointestinal tract malignancy. 2003, 89 (3):426-30 Br. J. Cancer
JournalBritish Journal of Cancer