AffiliationChristie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK. email@example.com
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThe ovarian steroids estrogen and progesterone (E(2) and P) are essential for normal mammary gland growth and development; however, the mechanisms by which they influence the proliferative activity of the mammary epithelium remain unclear. Mammary epithelial cells cells expressing the receptors for E(2) and P (ER and PR respectively) are separate from, although often adjacent to, those capable of proliferating, implying that the ovarian steroids act indirectly via paracrine or juxtacrine growth factors to stimulate entry into the cell cycle. A large number of candidate factors have been identified in a variety of different experimental systems, and it appears that transforming growth factor beta may play a role in preventing proliferation of steroid receptor-containing cells. Dysregulation of the strict inverse relationship between ERalpha expression and proliferation is detectable in premalignant human breast lesions, indicating that it might be essential to the tumorigenic process. Challenges for the future include determining which of the candidates identified as being mediators of the effects of E(2) are physiologically and clinically relevant as well as finding out how ERalpha-containing cells become proliferative during tumorigenesis. Answering these questions could greatly increase our understanding of the factors controlling mammary gland development and the processes leading to cancer formation.
CitationSteroid receptors and cell cycle in normal mammary epithelium. 2004, 9 (1):3-13 J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia
JournalJournal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
- The role of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in human mammary development and tumorigenesis.
- Authors: Anderson E
- Issue date: 2002
- The ontogeny of mouse mammary gland responsiveness to ovarian steroid hormones.
- Authors: Haslam SZ
- Issue date: 1989 Nov
- Mammary gland growth and development from the postnatal period to postmenopause: ovarian steroid receptor ontogeny and regulation in the mouse.
- Authors: Fendrick JL, Raafat AM, Haslam SZ
- Issue date: 1998 Jan
- Human breast cell proliferation and its relationship to steroid receptor expression.
- Authors: Clarke RB
- Issue date: 2004 Jun
- Pattern of distribution of cells positive for estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor in relation to proliferating cells in the mammary gland.
- Authors: Russo J, Ao X, Grill C, Russo IH
- Issue date: 1999 Feb