An assessment of clinically optimal gold marker length and diameter for pelvic radiotherapy verification using an amorphous silicon flat panel electronic portal imaging device.
AuthorsHenry, Ann M
Sykes, Jonathan R
Moore, Christopher J
Price, Patricia M
Khoo, Vincent S
AffiliationAcademic Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, UK.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractVerification of target organ position is essential for the accurate delivery of conformal radiotherapy. Megavoltage electronic portal imaging with flat panel amorphous silicon detectors delivers high quality images that can be used for verification of bony landmark position. Gold markers implanted into the target organ can be visualized and used as a surrogate of actual organ position. On-line compensation for marker displacement, by adjusting patient position, can reduce geometric errors associated with radiation delivery. This study assesses the optimal marker length and diameter to be used with an amorphous silicon (a-Si) flat panel detector and electronic portal images (EPIs), prior to implementation of a clinical programme of gold marker insertion in prostate cancer patients. Seven marker sizes varying from 3 mm to 8 mm in length and 0.8 mm to 1.1 mm in diameter were investigated in a group of patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy using an 8 MV Elekta SL20 linear accelerator. Markers were placed on the skin entry and exit sites of the treatment beam and EPIs in both lateral and anterior pelvic views were acquired. Three observers independently assessed visibility success and failure using a subjective scoring system. Markers less than 5 mm in length or 0.9 mm in diameter were poorly visualized (<70% visualization success in lateral EPIs). The marker measuring 0.9 mm x 5 mm appears to be clinically optimal in pelvic radiotherapy patients (80% visualization success in lateral EPIs) and will be used for actual organ implantation.
CitationAn assessment of clinically optimal gold marker length and diameter for pelvic radiotherapy verification using an amorphous silicon flat panel electronic portal imaging device. 2005, 78 (932):737-41 Br J Radiol
JournalThe British Journal of Radiology
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