Immunotherapy success in prophylaxis cannot predict therapy: prime-boost vaccination against the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen
AffiliationCRUK Immunology Group, Paterson Institute of Cancer Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, UK.
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AbstractWe have investigated the tumour therapeutic efficacy of homologous and heterologous prime-boost vaccine strategies against the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen, using both replication defective adenovirus expressing human 5T4 (Ad5T4), and retrovirally transduced DC lines (DCh5T4) in a subcutaneous B16 melanoma model (B16h5T4). In naïve mice we show that all vaccine combinations tested can provide significant tumour growth delay. While DCh5T4/Adh5T4 sequence is the best prophylactic regimen (P > 0.0001), it does not demonstrate any therapeutic efficacy in mice with established tumours. In active therapy the Adh5T4/DCh5T4 vaccination sequence is the best treatment regimen (P = 0.0045). In active therapy, we demonstrate that B16h5T4 tumour growth per se induces Th2 polarising immune responses against 5T4, and the success of subsequent vaccination is dependant on altering the polarizing immune responses from Th2 to Th1. We show that the first immunization with Adh5T4 can condition the mice to induce 5T4 specific Th1 immune responses, which can be sustained and subsequently boosted with DCh5T4. In contrast immunisation with DCh5T4 augments Th2 immune responses, such that a subsequent vaccination with Adh5T4 cannot rescue tumour growth. In this case the depletion of CD25(+) regulatory cells after tumour challenge but before immunization can restore therapeutic efficacy. This study highlights that all vaccine vectors are not equal at generating TAA immune responses; in tumour bearing mice the capability of different vaccines to activate the most appropriate anti-tumour immune responses is greatly altered compared to what is found in naïve mice.
CitationImmunotherapy success in prophylaxis cannot predict therapy: prime-boost vaccination against the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen. 2007, 56 (2):165-80 Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
JournalCancer Immunology Immunotherapy
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