Manchester Molecular Imaging Centre
This collection contains items published from 2008 onwards.
The meaning, measurement and modification of hypoxia in the laboratory and the clinic.Hypoxia was identified as a microenvironmental component of solid tumours over 60 years ago and was immediately recognised as a potential barrier to therapy through the reliance of radiotherapy on oxygen to elicit maximal cytotoxicity. Over the last two decades both clinical and experimental studies have markedly enhanced our understanding of how hypoxia influences cellular behaviour and therapy response. Furthermore, they have confirmed early assumptions that low oxygenation status in tumours is an exploitable target in cancer therapy. Generally such approaches will be more beneficial to patients with hypoxic tumours, necessitating the use of biomarkers that reflect oxygenation status. Tissue biomarkers have shown utility in many studies. Further significant advances have been made in the non-invasive measurement of tumour hypoxia with positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging modalities. Here, we describe the complexities of defining and measuring tumour hypoxia and highlight the therapeutic approaches to combat it.
Quantifying heterogeneity in human tumours using MRI and PET.Most tumours, even those of the same histological type and grade, demonstrate considerable biological heterogeneity. Variations in genomic subtype, growth factor expression and local microenvironmental factors can result in regional variations within individual tumours. For example, localised variations in tumour cell proliferation, cell death, metabolic activity and vascular structure will be accompanied by variations in oxygenation status, pH and drug delivery that may directly affect therapeutic response. Documenting and quantifying regional heterogeneity within the tumour requires histological or imaging techniques. There is increasing evidence that quantitative imaging biomarkers can be used in vivo to provide important, reproducible and repeatable estimates of tumoural heterogeneity. In this article we review the imaging methods available to provide appropriate biomarkers of tumour structure and function. We also discuss the significant technical issues involved in the quantitative estimation of heterogeneity and the range of descriptive metrics that can be derived. Finally, we have reviewed the existing clinical evidence that heterogeneity metrics provide additional useful information in drug discovery and development and in clinical practice.
No relationship between 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and expression of Glut-1 and -3 and hexokinase I and II in high-grade glioma.The purpose of this study was to compare glucose metabolism, measured using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET), with the expression of Glut-1 and -3 and hexokinase I (Hex I) and II in high-grade glioma. The retrospective study involved 27 patients with WHO classification grade III and IV glioma, with either newly diagnosed or recurrent tumours. Patients underwent dynamic and static [18F]FDG-PET to glucose metabolic rate (MRGlu) and standardised uptake value (SUV), respectively. Tumour biopsies were obtained and stained using immunohistochemistry for the expression of Glut-1, -3, Hex I and II. Relationships between variables were studied using Spearman's rank correlation test. Results showed that the expression of Glut-1, Glut-3, Hex I and Hex II varied between and within the tumour samples. The mean of MRGlu was 0.2 (range 0.09-0.25) micromol/min/ml and that of SUV was 4.2 (range 3.2-5.2). There were no significant relationships among the tumour expression of any of the proteins studied with either MRGlu or SUV (p>0.21 for all). In conclusion, the lack of relationship between the immunohistochemical expression of Glut-1, -3, Hex I or II and glucose metabolism measured using [18F]FDG-PET in patients with high-grade glioma may be due to the tissue heterogeneity and presence of necrosis in high-grade tumours.