Eradication of established B-cell lymphoma by CD19-specific murine T cells is dependent on host lymphopenic environment and can be mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.(2009-04)B-cell malignancies seem to be particularly amenable to immunotherapy and as such make particularly attractive targets for adoptive T-cell therapy. Murine T cells gene-modified to express a chimeric immune receptor specific for CD19+ (aCD19z) efficiently kill CD19 B-cell lymphoma cells in vitro. aCD19z T cells also secrete high levels of interleukin-2 during culture with target cells in a CD86 independent manner. aCD19z T cells proved effective at eradicating established B-cell lymphoma in a syngeneic model system when combined with a lymphodepleting preconditioning regimen. In mice deficient of T, B, and natural killer cells (severe combined immunodeficient/Beige), aCD19z T cells efficiently eradicated long-term (13 d) established tumors with 100% of treated animals remaining tumor free for greater than 77 days. Although gene-modified CD4+ and CD8+ were both active in this setting, poor engraftment by CD8+ T cells coupled with the rigorous expansion of CD4+ cells in the Balb/c background suggests that CD4+ T cells may be playing a predominant role in lymphoma rejection in this model. Taken together, the therapeutic effectiveness of aCD19z T cells in this model supports a recently opened phase 1 trial of this receptor in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.