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dc.contributor.authorElkord, Eyad
dc.contributor.authorHawkins, Robert E
dc.contributor.authorStern, Peter L
dc.date.accessioned2009-04-24T09:21:34Z
dc.date.available2009-04-24T09:21:34Z
dc.date.issued2008-04
dc.identifier.citationImmunotherapy for gastrointestinal cancer: current status and strategies for improving efficacy. 2008, 8 (4):385-95 Expert Opin Biol Theren
dc.identifier.issn1744-7682
dc.identifier.pmid18352844
dc.identifier.doi10.1517/14712598.8.4.385
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10541/66174
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Despite improvement in conventional strategies for treating gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoma, large numbers of patients still suffer from incurable or progressive disease. OBJECTIVE: Here we consider the prospects for circumventing limitations and maximising the efficacy of different immunotherapies. Methods: We summarise different cancer vaccines and targeted drugs and highlight the scientific rationale of using immunotherapy for targeting GI cancers, in addition to the potential strategies for improving immunotherapeutic efficacy. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Many cancer vaccines and antibody-directed therapies have been tested in early phase clinical trials and demonstrated proof of concept and safety. As yet few have been properly evaluated for clinical efficacy; although adoptive transfer of tumour-associated-antigen-specific T cells has shown dramatic clinical responses in some patients. The recognition of a role for T regulatory cells in limiting anti-tumour immunity has provided momentum for developing strategies to over-ride such immunoinhibitory effects. There is some evidence that conventional therapies may work by influencing these negative factors and allowing expression of immune control mechanisms. An important developing area for clinical evaluation is the testing of combined conventional and immunotherapeutic modalities which may provide for synergy; thereby circumventing the limitations of individualised treatments and generating additional clinical benefits.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.subjectColorectal Canceren
dc.subjectGastrointestinal Canceren
dc.subjectT Regulatory Cellsen
dc.subjectTumour Escapeen
dc.subject.meshAnimals
dc.subject.meshAntibodies
dc.subject.meshAntigens, Neoplasm
dc.subject.meshCancer Vaccines
dc.subject.meshCombined Modality Therapy
dc.subject.meshGastrointestinal Neoplasms
dc.subject.meshHumans
dc.subject.meshImmunologic Factors
dc.subject.meshImmunotherapy
dc.subject.meshImmunotherapy, Adoptive
dc.subject.meshT-Lymphocytes
dc.subject.meshTreatment Outcome
dc.subject.meshTumor Escape
dc.titleImmunotherapy for gastrointestinal cancer: current status and strategies for improving efficacy.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Manchester, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Medical Oncology, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. eelkord@picr.man.ac.uken
dc.identifier.journalExpert Opinion on Biological Therapyen
html.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Despite improvement in conventional strategies for treating gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoma, large numbers of patients still suffer from incurable or progressive disease. OBJECTIVE: Here we consider the prospects for circumventing limitations and maximising the efficacy of different immunotherapies. Methods: We summarise different cancer vaccines and targeted drugs and highlight the scientific rationale of using immunotherapy for targeting GI cancers, in addition to the potential strategies for improving immunotherapeutic efficacy. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Many cancer vaccines and antibody-directed therapies have been tested in early phase clinical trials and demonstrated proof of concept and safety. As yet few have been properly evaluated for clinical efficacy; although adoptive transfer of tumour-associated-antigen-specific T cells has shown dramatic clinical responses in some patients. The recognition of a role for T regulatory cells in limiting anti-tumour immunity has provided momentum for developing strategies to over-ride such immunoinhibitory effects. There is some evidence that conventional therapies may work by influencing these negative factors and allowing expression of immune control mechanisms. An important developing area for clinical evaluation is the testing of combined conventional and immunotherapeutic modalities which may provide for synergy; thereby circumventing the limitations of individualised treatments and generating additional clinical benefits.


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