Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression predicts response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AffiliationClinical Oncology Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
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AbstractBackground: In patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression has been demonstrated to predict response to immunotherapy. It is unclear whether PD-L1 expression measured with currently available validated assays can predict chemotherapy response in patients with non-metastatic TNBC. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies to assess the PD-L1 expression as a predictor of response to chemotherapy in non-metastatic TNBC using validated assays. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR) rate to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Secondary endpoints included the prevalence of PD-L1 expression in non-metastatic TNBC and its impact on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Moreover, RNA sequence data from the TCGA breast cancer cohort was used to define the relationship between PDCD1 expression and response to chemotherapy and prognosis. Results: Nineteen studies were eligible for the meta-analysis with a total of 2403 patients with non-metastatic TNBC disease. The PD-L1-positive cohort had a significantly higher likelihood of achieving pCR with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (pooled odds ratio = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.39-2.73, p < 0.0001). In studies which reported long-term outcomes, PD-L1 positivity was associated with significantly better DFS and OS compared to PD-L1 negative patients (pooled hazard ratio = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35-0.74, p < 0.0001 and 0.51; 95% CI = 0.27-0.94, p = 0.031, respectively). Transcriptomic data suggested that PD-L1 expression is a surrogate marker for the upregulation of key immune-related genes that mediate response to chemotherapy in TNBC. Conclusion: This analysis clearly shows that patients with PD-L1 positive TNBC respond better to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and are associated with better survival outcomes compared to patients with PD-L1 negative tumours. The newly distinct quadruple negative breast cancer (QNBC) subtype should be defined as the BC subtype with the poorest outcome in the non-metastatic setting, highlighting the need for more aggressive therapy approaches.
CitationAzim HA, Shohdy KS, Elghazawy H, Salib MM, Almeldin D, Kassem L. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression predicts response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biomarkers : biochemical indicators of exposure, response, and susceptibility to chemicals. 2022 Aug 22:1-9. PubMed PMID: 35980714. Epub 2022/08/19. eng.
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