Acute and chronic cardiopulmonary effects of high dose interleukin-2 therapy: an observational magnetic resonance imaging study
Naish, J. H.
Schelbert, E. B.
Hawkins, Robert E
Miller, C. A.
AffiliationWythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Wythenshawe Hospital, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT, UK
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AbstractHigh dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) is known to be associated with cardiopulmonary toxicity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of high dose IL-2 therapy on cardiopulmonary structure and function. Combined cardiopulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 7 patients in the acute period following IL-2 therapy and repeated in 4 patients in the chronic period. Comparison was made to 10 healthy volunteers. IL-2 therapy was associated with myocardial and pulmonary capillary leak, tissue oedema and cardiomyocyte injury, which resulted in acute significant left ventricular (LV) dilatation, a reduction in LV ejection fraction (EF), an increase in LV mass and a prolongation of QT interval. The acute effects occurred irrespective of symptoms. In the chronic period many of the effects resolved, but LV hypertrophy ensued, driven by focal replacement and diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis and increased cardiomyocyte mass. In conclusion, IL-2 therapy is ubiquitously associated with acute cardiopulmonary inflammation, irrespective of symptoms, which leads to acute LV dilatation and dysfunction, increased LV mass and QT interval prolongation. Most of these effects are reversible but IL-2 therapy is associated with chronic LV hypertrophy, driven by interstitial myocardial fibrosis and increased cardiomyocyte mass. The findings have important implications for the monitoring and long term impact of newer immunotherapies. Future studies are needed to improve risk stratification and develop cardiopulmonary-protective strategies.
CitationLagan J, Naish JH, Fortune C, Campbell C, Chow S, Pillai M, et al. Acute and Chronic Cardiopulmonary Effects of High Dose Interleukin-2 Therapy: An Observational Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Vol. 12, Diagnostics. MDPI AG; 2022. p. 1352.