Radioguided surgery for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic literature review
AffiliationNorthern Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, County Durham and Darlington NHS Foundation Trust, Hollyhurst Road, Darlington, DL3 6HX, UK.
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AbstractBackground: Radioguided surgery (RGS) for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs) has been suggested as a way to improve intraoperative lesion detection. This systematic literature review of reports of the use of RGS for GEP-NETs was performed to determine if there is a benefit. Methods: A literature search was conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed, and snowballing from any relevant literature. Full-text studies were included if they were published in the English language and reported outcomes of RGS on human subjects with GEP-NETs. Qualitative data synthesis was performed. Results: Twenty-six papers including a total of 209 patients were included. The tracers used were predominantly indium-111 pentetreotide, gallium-68 DOTA-peptides, and technetium-99m EDDA/HYNIC-peptides. Heterogeneous protocols make comparisons difficult, but most papers reported a benefit from the use of RGS in tumours in the gastrointestinal tract; utility in localisation of pancreatic tumours was less clear. Time between tracer administration and operation varied: from 16 h to 8 days with indium-111, 0-24 h with technetium-99m, and 19-193 min with gallium-68. Eight teams reported the thresholding technique used for discrimination-four used a ratio, four statistical methods, and one looked at the sensitivity and specificity of different cut-offs. Six teams performed follow-up of 24 patients (three pancreas, eight gastrinoma, 13 gastrointestinal tract) for between 3 months and 3 years. Two patients relapsed (one pancreas, one gastrinoma) between 6 and 12 months post-surgery. Conclusions: RGS appears to aid in localisation of gastrointestinal NETs, but the benefit is more equivocal in pancreatic NETs. Further work into outcomes is warranted.
CitationCockburn KC, Toumi Z, Mackie A, Julyan P. Radioguided Surgery for Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours: a Systematic Literature Review. J Gastrointest Surg. 2021 Sep 10.
JournalJournal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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