Evaluating the potential utility of three-dimensional printed models in preoperative planning and patient consent in gastrointestinal cancer surgery
AffiliationCountess of Chester Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Chester, UK
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AbstractIntroduction: The Future of Surgery report from the Royal College of Surgeons of England acknowledges the important role that three-dimensional imaging will play in support of personalised surgical interventions. One component of this is preoperative planning. We investigated surgeons' and patients' perceptions of this evolving technology. Materials and methods: Ethical approval was obtained. From a normal computed tomography scan, three-dimensional models of the stomach, pancreas and rectum were rendered and printed on an Ultimaker™ three-dimensional printer. Semi-structured interviews were performed with surgeons and patients to explore perceived model effectiveness and utility. Likert scales were used to grade responses (1 = strongly disagree; 10 = strongly agree) and qualitative responses recorded. Results: A total of 26 surgeons (9 rectal, 9 oesophagogastric, 8 pancreatic) and 30 patients (median age 62 years, interquartile range, IQR, 68-72 years; 57% male) were recruited. Median surgeon scores were effectiveness for preoperative planning, 6 (IQR 3-7), authenticity, 5 (IQR 3-6), likability, 6 (IQR 4-7), promoting learning, 7 (IQR 5-8), utility, 6 (IQR 5-7) and helping patients, 7 (IQR 5-8). Median patient scores were usefulness to the surgeon, 8 (IQR 7-9), authenticity, 8 (IQR 6-8), likability, 8 (IQR 7-8), helping understanding of condition, 8 (IQR 8-9), helping understanding of surgery, 8 (IQR 7-9) and feeling uncomfortable, 1 (IQR 1-4). Median overall decisional conflict score (0 = no; 100 = high) was 22 (IQR 19-28) and decision effectiveness was 25 (IQR 19-30). Discussion: Overall, patients and surgeons considered that three-dimensional printed models were effective and had potential utility in education and, to a lesser extent, preoperative planning. Patient decisional conflict and effectiveness scores were weighted towards certainty in decision making but had room for improvement, which three-dimensional models may help to facilitate.
CitationPovey M, Powell S, Howes N, Vimalachandran D, Sutton P. Evaluating the potential utility of three-dimensional printed models in preoperative planning and patient consent in gastrointestinal cancer surgery. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2021;103(8):615-20.
JournalAnnals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England