The microbiome as a potential target for therapeutic manipulation in pancreatic cancer
AffiliationExperimental Cancer Medicine Team, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M20 4BX, UK
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AbstractPancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers and is projected to be the second most common cause of cancer-related death by 2030, with an overall 5-year survival rate between 7% and 9%. Despite recent advances in surgical, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy techniques, the outcome for patients with PDAC remains poor. Poor prognosis is multifactorial, including the likelihood of sub-clinical metastatic disease at presentation, late-stage at presentation, absence of early and reliable diagnostic biomarkers, and complex biology surrounding the extensive desmoplastic PDAC tumour micro-environment. Microbiota refers to all the microorganisms found in an environment, whereas microbiome is the collection of microbiota and their genome within an environment. These organisms reside on body surfaces and within mucosal layers, but are most abundantly found within the gut. The commensal microbiome resides in symbiosis in healthy individuals and contributes to nutritive, metabolic and immune-modulation to maintain normal health. Dysbiosis is the perturbation of the microbiome that can lead to a diseased state, including inflammatory bowel conditions and aetiology of cancer, such as colorectal and PDAC. Microbes have been linked to approximately 10% to 20% of human cancers, and they can induce carcinogenesis by affecting a number of the cancer hallmarks, such as promoting inflammation, avoiding immune destruction, and microbial metabolites can deregulate host genome stability preceding cancer development. Significant advances have been made in cancer treatment since the advent of immunotherapy. The microbiome signature has been linked to response to immunotherapy and survival in many solid tumours. However, progress with immunotherapy in PDAC has been challenging. Therefore, this review will focus on the available published evidence of the microbiome association with PDAC and explore its potential as a target for therapeutic manipulation.
CitationAbdul Rahman R, Lamarca A, Hubner RA, Valle JW, McNamara MG. The Microbiome as a Potential Target for Therapeutic Manipulation in Pancreatic Cancer. Cancers. 2021 Jul 27;13(15):3779.