Technical note: 4D deformable digital phantom for MRI sequence development
AffiliationDivision of Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK
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AbstractPurpose: MR-guided radiotherapy has different requirements for the images than diagnostic radiology, thus requiring development of novel imaging sequences. MRI simulation is an excellent tool for optimising these new sequences, however currently available software does not provide all the necessary features. In this paper we present a digital framework for testing MRI sequences that incorporates anatomical structure, respiratory motion and realistic presentation of MR physics. Methods: The extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) software was used to create T1, T2 and proton density maps that formed the anatomical structure of the phantom. Respiratory motion model was based on the XCAT deformation vector fields, modified to create a motion model driven by a respiration signal. MRI simulation was carried out with JEMRIS, an open source Bloch simulator. We developed an extension for JEMRIS, which calculates the motion of each spin independently, allowing for deformable motion. Results: The performance of the framework was demonstrated through simulating the acquisition of a 2D cine and demonstrating expected motion ghosts from T2 weighted spin echo acquisitions with different respiratory patterns. All simulations were consistent with behaviour previously described in literature. Simulations with deformable motion were not more time consuming than with rigid motion. Conclusions: We present a deformable 4D digital phantom framework for MR sequence development. The framework incorporates anatomical structure, realistic breathing patterns, deformable motion and Bloch simulation to achieve accurate simulation of MRI. This method is particularly relevant for testing novel imaging.
CitationHanson HM, Eiben B, McClelland JR, van Herk M, Rowland BC. Technical Note: 4D Deformable Digital Phantom for MRI Sequence Development. Medical Physics . 2021 Jun 8.