Targeted therapies for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: preclinical and clinical development and prospects for the clinic
Marin, J. J.
Banales, J. M.
AffiliationDepartment of Molecular Medicine (DMM), University of Padua, Padua. Italy.
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AbstractIntroduction: Until recently, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) was a largely overlooked disease, and among CCAs, extrahepatic CCA (eCCA) was even more neglected. Despite the growing impact of molecularly targeted therapies and immunotherapy, prognosis of eCCA is dismal. Therefore, unraveling the complex molecular landscape of eCCA has become an urgent need. Deep phenotyping studies have revealed that eCCA is a heterogeneous tumor, harboring specific alterations categorizable into four classes, 'Mesenchymal', 'Proliferation', 'Immune', 'Metabolic'. Molecular alterations convey the activation of several pro-oncogenic pathways, where either actionable drivers or outcome predictors can be identified.Areas covered: We offer insights on perturbed pathways, molecular profiling, and actionable targets in eCCA and present a perspective on the potential stepping-stones to future progress. A systematic literature search in PubMed/ClinicalTrials.gov websites was performed by authors from different disciplines according to their specific topic knowledge to identify the newest and most relevant advances in precision medicine of eCCA.Expert opinion: eCCA is a distinct entity with unique features in terms of molecular classes, oncogenic drivers, and tumor microenvironment. Since more prevalent mutations are currently undruggable, and immunotherapy can be offered only to a minority of patients, international collaborations are instrumental to improve the understanding of the molecular underpins of this disease.
CitationCadamuro M, Lasagni A, Lamarca A, Fouassier L, Guido M, Sarcognato S, et al. Targeted therapies for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: preclinical and clinical development and prospects for the clinic. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2021:1-11.
JournalExpert Opinion in Investigational Drugs