Knudsen, K. E.
Johnson, D. C.
Reiter, R. E.
Van der Kwast, T.
Bristow, Robert G
AffiliationCancer Research UK Manchester Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Mancheste
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractProstate cancer is a complex disease that affects millions of men globally, predominantly in high human development index regions. Patients with localized disease at a low to intermediate risk of recurrence generally have a favourable outcome of 99% overall survival for 10 years if the disease is detected and treated at an early stage. Key genetic alterations include fusions of TMPRSS2 with ETS family genes, amplification of the MYC oncogene, deletion and/or mutation of PTEN and TP53 and, in advanced disease, amplification and/or mutation of the androgen receptor (AR). Prostate cancer is usually diagnosed by prostate biopsy prompted by a blood test to measure prostate-specific antigen levels and/or digital rectal examination. Treatment for localized disease includes active surveillance, radical prostatectomy or ablative radiotherapy as curative approaches. Men whose disease relapses after prostatectomy are treated with salvage radiotherapy and/or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for local relapse, or with ADT combined with chemotherapy or novel androgen signalling-targeted agents for systemic relapse. Advanced prostate cancer often progresses despite androgen ablation and is then considered castration-resistant and incurable. Current treatment options include AR-targeted agents, chemotherapy, radionuclides and the poly(ADP-ribose) inhibitor olaparib. Current research aims to improve prostate cancer detection, management and outcomes, including understanding the fundamental biology at all stages of the disease.
CitationRebello RJ, Oing C, Knudsen KE, Loeb S, Johnson DC, Reiter RE, et al. Prostate cancer. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2021;7(1):9.
JournalNature Reviews Disease Primers
- EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Part II: Treatment of advanced, relapsing, and castration-resistant prostate cancer.
- Authors: Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, Joniau S, van der Kwast T, Mason M, Matveev V, Wiegel T, Zattoni F, Mottet N, European Association of Urology.
- Issue date: 2014 Feb
- Prostate Cancer Review: Genetics, Diagnosis, Treatment Options, and Alternative Approaches.
- Authors: Sekhoacha M, Riet K, Motloung P, Gumenku L, Adegoke A, Mashele S
- Issue date: 2022 Sep 5
- Use of Concomitant Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Patients Treated with Early Salvage Radiotherapy for Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy: Long-term Results from a Large, Multi-institutional Series.
- Authors: Gandaglia G, Fossati N, Karnes RJ, Boorjian SA, Colicchia M, Bossi A, Seisen T, Cozzarini C, Di Muzio N, Noris Chiorda B, Zaffuto E, Wiegel T, Shariat SF, Goldner G, Joniau S, Battaglia A, Haustermans K, De Meerleer G, Fonteyne V, Ost P, Van Poppel H, Montorsi F, Briganti A
- Issue date: 2018 Apr
- Differential Risk of Castration Resistance After Initial Radical Prostatectomy or Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer.
- Authors: Obata H, Shiota M, Akitake N, Takeuchi A, Kashiwagi E, Dejima T, Kiyoshima K, Inokuchi J, Tatsugami K, Eto M
- Issue date: 2017 Oct
- Mortality and Androgen Deprivation Therapy as Salvage Treatment for Biochemical Recurrence after Primary Therapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer.
- Authors: Fu AZ, Tsai HT, Haque R, Yood MU, Cassidy-Bushrow AE, Van Den Eeden SK, Keating NL, Smith MR, Zhou Y, Aaronson DS, Potosky AL
- Issue date: 2017 Jun