An unusual case of oedematous prostate volumetric changes observed over the course of radiotherapy on the MR linear accelerator
AffiliationThe Christie NHSFT, Manchester, United Kingdom.
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AbstractIntroduction: The integration of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging into radiotherapy through new technology, including the MR -linear accelerator (MRL), has allowed further advancements into image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Better soft tissue visualisation has led to some unusual findings. Case and outcomes: A patient with T1c N0 M0 prostate adenocarcinoma received 60Gy in 20# radiotherapy on the MRL. Radiotherapy planning (RTP) scans were completed on both CT and MR (using T2 and T1 weighted three-dimensional turbo spin echo sequences, reconstructed transaxially (TRA). The MR scans revealed atypical oedema in the right peripheral zone, visualised on T2-weighted (T2w) MR Images as an accumulation of high signal intensity fluid. Daily MRL treatment includes a (T2w 3D Tra) sequence with which oedematous changes could be monitored. The images demonstrated an increase in oedematous volume over fractions 1-10 causing the prostate contour variations from the initial planning scans. Despite the prostate volume variations PTV coverage was never breached and dose constraints were always met for both PTV and surrounding organs at risk (OAR's), excluding the need for oncologist input. A single Therapeutic Radiographer (RTT) experienced in MRL delivery, contoured the prostate and oedematous volumes on the radiotherapy plan (RTP) MR and all on-treatment MR images to assess change over the radiotherapy course. The initial volumes were 53.4 cm3 and 8.3 cm3 for the prostate plus oedema and oedema alone respectively. The most significant change was seen for both the prostate and oedema on fraction nine (68.0 cm3 and 10.1 cm3, respectively). Reductions were noted after this with final (fraction 20) volumes of 55.2 cm3 and 0.58 cm3 respectively. Discussion: The ability to visualise prostatic oedema was new to the radiotherapy treatment team due to better soft tissue visualisation than standard radiotherapy. The results from contouring the prostate and oedema volumes confirmed radiographer observations and demonstrated how oedema impacted the overall prostate volume by quantifying the oedematous variations over time. The changes in oedema volume are presumed to be in response to radiotherapy. Conclusion: Further adaptive radiotherapy work-flow developments, utilising an "Adapt to Shape" model will allow real-time re-contouring of the prostate to ensure tumour control is not compromised. Further work investigating the frequency and impact of oedemotous changes to external beam prostate patients will help to inform practice.
CitationClough A, Bridge P, Hales R, McDaid L, Choudhury A, Eccles CL. An unusual case of oedematous prostate volumetric changes observed over the course of radiotherapy on the MR linear accelerator. J Med Imaging Radiat Sci. 2020.
JournalJournal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
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