The role of frozen section examination during inguinal exploration in men with inconclusive testicular tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AuthorsFankhauser, Christian D
Ramani, Vijay A C
AffiliationDepartment of Urology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland;
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AbstractFor inconclusive testicular tumors with negative tumor markers, frozen section examination (FSE) during inguinal exploration is recommended. However, FSE is time-consuming and therefore often not requested. Furthermore, the exact diagnostic benefit remains poorly defined. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis summarizing 12 published studies and our own series of FSE in patients with inconclusive testicular tumors, resulting in a cohort of 1052 FSEs. FSE showed sensitivity of 99% and specificity of 96% with a positive predictive value of 98% and a negative predictive value of 97%. Most importantly, one-third of all testicular tumors investigated were correctly identified as being suitable for testis-sparing surgery and orchiectomy could be avoided. For patients with inconclusive testicular tumors, FSE is useful for deciding whether testis-sparing surgery is an option or whether radical orchiectomy should be performed. Thus, these patients should be optimally treated in institutions where FSE is available. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that intraoperative examination of a frozen section is useful in deciding on whether the entire or only parts of the testicle can be removed. We conclude that frozen section examination should be offered to men with small testicular lesions and negative tumor markers. Keywords: Frozen section; Testicular germ cell tumor.
CitationFankhauser CD, Roth L, Kranzbuhler B, Eberli D, Bode P, Moch H, et al. The Role of Frozen Section Examination During Inguinal Exploration in Men with Inconclusive Testicular Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Eur Urol Focus. 2020.
JournalEuropean Urology Focus