Keratinocyte carcinomas: current concepts and future research priorities
Green, Adèle C
AffiliationDepartment of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractCutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are keratinocyte carcinomas, the most frequently diagnosed cancers in fair-skinned populations. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the main driving carcinogen for these tumors, but immunosuppression, pigmentary factors, and aging are also risk factors. Scientific discoveries have improved the understanding of the role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in cSCC as well as the skin microbiome and a compromised immune system in the development of both cSCC and BCC. Genomic analyses have uncovered genetic risk variants, high-risk susceptibility genes, and somatic events that underlie common pathways important in keratinocyte carcinoma tumorigenesis and tumor characteristics that have enabled development of prediction models for early identification of high-risk individuals. Advances in chemoprevention in high-risk individuals and progress in targeted and immune-based treatment approaches have the potential to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with these tumors. As the incidence and prevalence of keratinocyte carcinoma continue to increase, strategies for prevention, including effective sun-protective behavior, educational interventions, and reduction of tanning bed access and usage, are essential. Gaps in our knowledge requiring additional research to reduce the high morbidity and costs associated with keratinocyte carcinoma include better understanding of factors leading to more aggressive tumors, the roles of microbiome and HPV infection, prediction of response to therapies including immune checkpoint blockade, and how to tailor both prevention and treatment to individual risk factors and needs.
CitationNagarajan P, Asgari MM, Green AC, Guhan SM, Arron ST, Proby CM, et al. Keratinocyte carcinomas: current concepts and future research priorities. Clin Cancer Res. 2019 Apr 15;25(8):2379-91.
JournalClinical Cancer Research
- UV-Induced Molecular Signaling Differences in Melanoma and Non-melanoma Skin Cancer.
- Authors: Liu-Smith F, Jia J, Zheng Y
- Issue date: 2017
- Sun protection for preventing basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers.
- Authors: Sánchez G, Nova J, Rodriguez-Hernandez AE, Medina RD, Solorzano-Restrepo C, Gonzalez J, Olmos M, Godfrey K, Arevalo-Rodriguez I
- Issue date: 2016 Jul 25
- Viruses in Skin Cancer (VIRUSCAN): Study Design and Baseline Characteristics of a Prospective Clinic-Based Cohort Study.
- Authors: Amorrortu RP, Fenske NA, Cherpelis BS, Vijayan L, Zhao Y, Balliu J, Messina JL, Sondak VK, Giuliano AR, Waterboer T, Pawlita M, Gheit T, Tommasino M, Rollison DE
- Issue date: 2020 Jan
- Cutaneous keratinocyte cancers of the head and neck: Epidemiology, risk factors and clinical, dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopic features.
- Authors: Lee KJ, Soyer HP
- Issue date: 2019 Nov
- Genetic and environmental factors underlying keratinocyte carcinoma risk.
- Authors: Choquet H, Ashrafzadeh S, Kim Y, Asgari MM, Jorgenson E
- Issue date: 2020 May 21