Smoking and cutaneous melanoma: findings from the QSkin sun and health cohort study.
AffiliationDepartment of Population Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Queensland, Australia
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AbstractBackground: Previous studies suggest that smokers have lower risks of cutaneous melanoma than nonsmokers, but data from population-based prospective studies are scarce. We investigated associations between smoking and melanoma in a cohort study purpose-designed to investigate skin cancer outcomes.Methods: Participants with no prior history of melanoma (n = 38,697) completed a risk factor survey at baseline (2011). Patients were followed through linkage to the cancer registry. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between smoking (including intensity, duration, time since quitting) and melanoma using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, accounting for death as a competing event.Results: During a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, invasive melanomas developed in 247 participants. Compared with never smokers, former smokers (but not current smokers) had lower risks of invasive melanoma (HR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.57-1.01). Among former smokers, risks were lower with greater quantity of cigarettes smoked (HR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.56-0.98 per 10 cigarettes/day). No association was observed with duration of smoking while longer time since quitting was associated with a relative risk of melanoma that was not significantly different from the null (HR 1.18; 95% CI, 0.91-1.51, for every 10 years since quitting).Conclusions: We observed complex associations between smoking and melanoma, with some suggestion that former smokers had lower risks than never or current smokers. The apparent inverse association among former smokers may be due to residual confounding, although surveillance bias or biological effects cannot be excluded entirely.Impact: Smoking does not increase the risk of cutaneous melanoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(8); 874-81. ©2018 AACR.
CitationSmoking and cutaneous melanoma: findings from the QSkin sun and health cohort study. 2018, 27(8): 874-881 Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
JournalCancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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