• Assessment of bladder motion for clinical radiotherapy practice using cine-magnetic resonance imaging.

      McBain, Catherine A; Khoo, Vincent S; Buckley, David L; Sykes, Jonathan S; Green, Melanie M; Cowan, Richard A; Hutchinson, Charles E; Moore, Christopher J; Price, Patricia M; Academic Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Manchester, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, United Kingdom. (2009-11-01)
      PURPOSE: Organ motion is recognized as the principal source of inaccuracy in bladder radiotherapy (RT), but there is currently little information on intrafraction bladder motion. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We used cine-magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) to study bladder motion relevant to intrafraction RT delivery. On two occasions, a 28 minute cine-MRI sequence was acquired from 10 bladder cancer patients and 5 control participants immediately after bladder emptying, after abstinence from drinking for the preceding hour. From the resulting cine sequences, bladder motion was subjectively assessed. To quantify bladder motion, the bladder was contoured in imaging volume sets at 0, 14, and 28 min to measure changes to bladder volumes, wall displacements, and center of gravity (COG) over time. RESULTS: The dominant source of bladder motion during imaging was bladder filling (up to 101% volume increase); rectal and small bowel movements were transient, with minimal impact. Bladder volume changes were similar for all participants. However for bladder cancer patients, wall displacements were larger (up to 58 mm), less symmetrical, and more variable compared with nondiseased control bladders. CONCLUSIONS: Significant and individualized intrafraction bladder wall displacements may occur during bladder RT delivery. This important source of inaccuracy should be incorporated into treatment planning and verification.
    • Early clinical evaluation of a novel three-dimensional structure delineation software tool (SCULPTER) for radiotherapy treatment planning.

      McBain, Catherine A; Moore, Christopher J; Green, Matthew M L; Price, Gareth J; Sykes, Jonathan R; Amer, Aminah; Khoo, Vincent S; Price, Patricia M; Academic Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. (2008-08)
      Modern radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) necessitates increased delineation of target volumes and organs at risk. Conventional manual delineation is a laborious, time-consuming and subjective process. It is prone to inconsistency and variability, but has the potential to be improved using automated segmentation algorithms. We carried out a pilot clinical evaluation of SCULPTER (Structure Creation Using Limited Point Topology Evidence in Radiotherapy) - a novel prototype software tool designed to improve structure delineation for RTP. Anonymized MR and CT image datasets from patients who underwent radiotherapy for bladder or prostate cancer were studied. An experienced radiation oncologist used manual and SCULPTER-assisted methods to create clinically acceptable organ delineations. SCULPTER was also tested by four other RTP professionals. Resulting contours were compared by qualitative inspection and quantitatively by using the volumes of the structures delineated and the time taken for completion. The SCULPTER tool was easy to apply to both MR and CT images and diverse anatomical sites. SCULPTER delineations closely reproduced manual contours with no significant volume differences detected, but SCULPTER delineations were significantly quicker (p<0.05) in most cases. In conclusion, clinical application of SCULPTER resulted in rapid and simple organ delineations with equivalent accuracy to manual methods, demonstrating proof-of-principle of the SCULPTER system and supporting its potential utility in RTP.
    • Ultrasound Imaging to Assess Inter- and Intra-fraction Motion during Bladder Radiotherapy and its Potential as a Verification Tool.

      McBain, Catherine A; Green, M M; Stratford, Julia; Davies, Julie; McCarthy, Claire; Taylor, Benjamin; McHugh, D; Swindell, Ric; Khoo, Vincent S; Price, Patricia M; et al. (2009-06)
      AIMS: Organ motion is the principle source of error in bladder cancer radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasound bladder volume measurement as a surrogate measure of organ motion during radiotherapy: (1) to assess inter- and intra-fraction bladder variation and (2) as a potential treatment verification tool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients receiving radical radiotherapy for bladder cancer underwent post-void ultrasound bladder volume measurement at the time of radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP), and immediately before (post-void) and after receiving daily fractions. RESULTS: Ultrasound bladder volume measurement was found to be a simple and acceptable method to estimate relative bladder volume changes. Six patients showed significant changes to post-void bladder volume over the treatment course (P<0.05). The mean inter-fraction post-void bladder volume of five patients exceeded their RTP ultrasound bladder volume by more than 50%. Intra-fraction bladder volume increased on 275/308 (89%) assessed fractions, with the mean intra-fraction volume increases of seven patients exceeding their RTP ultrasound bladder volume by more than 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Both day-to-day bladder volume variation and bladder filling during treatment should be considered in RTP and delivery. Ultrasound may provide a practical daily verification tool by: supporting volume limitation as a method of treatment margin reduction; allowing detection of patients who may require interventions to promote bladder reproducibility; and identifying patients with prominent volume changes for the selective application of more advanced adaptive/image-guided radiotherapy techniques.