Now showing items 21-40 of 180

    • Randomised phase II trial of 4 dose levels of single agent docetaxel in performance status (PS) 2 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): DOC PS2 trial. Manchester lung cancer group.

      Califano, Raffaele; Griffiths, Richard W; Lorigan, Paul C; Ashcroft, Linda; Taylor, Paul; Burt, Paul A; Lee, Lip W; Chittalia, Abbas; Harris, Maggie A; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; et al. (2011-09)
      The role of chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC patients and ECOG PS2 remains controversial. We evaluated 4 doses of 3-weekly docetaxel to identify a less toxic, clinically effective dose.
    • Influence of co-morbidity on renal function assessment by Cockcroft-Gault calculation in lung cancer and mesothelioma patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy.

      Hubner, Richard A; Goldstein, R; Mitchell, S; Jones, A; Ashley, S; O'Brien, M E R; Popat, S; Dept Medical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. (2011-09)
      Creatinine clearance (CrCl) estimation by Cockcroft-Gault calculation (CG) often replaces measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by [(51)Cr]-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance (EDTA). Co-morbidity, age, and renal impairment influence the accuracy of CG, whilst the relationship between CG and EDTA has been poorly assessed in lung cancer patients, a population significantly affected by these covariates.
    • Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) status and lung cancer outcomes: a meta-analysis of published studies and recommendations.

      Hubner, Richard A; Riley, R D; Billingham, L J; Popat, S; Department of Medical Oncology, Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. (2011)
      Despite discrepant results on clinical utility, several trials are already prospectively randomizing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients by ERCC1 status. We aimed to characterize the prognostic and predictive effect of ERCC1 by systematic review and meta-analysis.
    • Lessons from the comparison of two randomized clinical trials using gemcitabine and cisplatin for advanced biliary tract cancer.

      Furuse, J; Okusaka, T; Bridgewater, J; Taketsuna, M; Wasan, H; Koshiji, M; Valle, Juan W; Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Oncology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan. (2011-10)
      There had been no standard chemotherapy established for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) until 2009, when the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine (GC) was adopted as a first line standard chemotherapy option based on the results from two randomized studies: ABC-02, a UK investigator-initiated trial and the largest randomized phase III study in this tumor type with 410 patients; and BT22, a Japanese, industry-sponsored, randomized phase II study with 83 patients. In this review, investigators from both studies collaborated to compare protocols, patient characteristics, and outcomes of both studies including sub-analyses of study results. Although both studies showed GC combination therapy to be more effective than monotherapy, a detailed comparison revealed disparities between efficacy and safety end-points between the studies, which did not necessarily arise from different populations but from differences in protocol design. This review provides clinicians with insights for advanced BTC clinical study design and interpretation of historical studies.
    • Cytokine production and inflammation drive autophagy in the tumor microenvironment: role of stromal caveolin-1 as a key regulator.

      Martinez-Outschoorn, U E; Whitaker-Menezes, D; Lin, Z; Flomenberg, N; Howell, Anthony; Pestell, R G; Lisanti, M P; Sotgia, F; Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. (2011-06-01)
      Recently, we proposed a new paradigm for understanding the role of the tumor microenvironment in breast cancer onset and progression. In this model, cancer cells induce oxidative stress in adjacent fibroblasts. This, in turn, results in the onset of stromal autophagy, which produces recycled nutrients to "feed" anabolic cancer cells. However, it remains unknown how autophagy in the tumor microenvironment relates to inflammation, another key driver of tumorigenesis. To address this issue, here we employed a well-characterized co-culture system in which cancer cells induce autophagy in adjacent fibroblasts via oxidative stress and NFκB-activation. We show, using this co-culture system, that the same experimental conditions that result in an autophagic microenvironment, also drive in the production of numerous inflammatory mediators (including IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MIP1a, IFNg, RANTES (CCL5) and GMCSF). Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of these inflammatory mediators are individually sufficient to directly induce the onset of autophagy in fibroblasts. To further validate the in vivo relevance of these findings, we assessed the inflammatory status of Cav-1 (-/-) null mammary fat pads, which are a model of a bonafide autophagic microenvironment. Notably, we show that Cav-1 (-/-) mammary fat pads undergo infiltration with numerous inflammatory cell types, including lymphocytes, T-cells, macrophages and mast cells. Taken together, our results suggest that cytokine production and inflammation are key drivers of autophagy in the tumor microenvironment. These results may explain why a loss of stromal Cav-1 is a powerful predictor of poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients, as it is a marker of both (1) autophagy and (2) inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. Lastly, hypoxia in fibroblasts was not sufficient to induce the full-blown inflammatory response that we observed during the co-culture of fibroblasts with cancer cells, indicating that key reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and fibroblasts may be required.
    • Evidence for a stromal-epithelial "lactate shuttle" in human tumors: MCT4 is a marker of oxidative stress in cancer-associated fibroblasts.

      Whitaker-Menezes, D; Martinez-Outschoorn, U E; Lin, Z; Ertel, A; Flomenberg, N; Witkiewicz, A K; Birbe, R C; Howell, Anthony; Pavlides, S; Gandara, R; et al. (2011-06-01)
      Recently, we proposed a new mechanism for understanding the Warburg effect in cancer metabolism. In this new paradigm, cancer-associated fibroblasts undergo aerobic glycolysis, and extrude lactate to "feed" adjacent cancer cells, which then drives mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells. Thus, there is vectorial transport of energy-rich substrates from the fibroblastic tumor stroma to anabolic cancer cells. A prediction of this hypothesis is that cancer-associated fibroblasts should express MCT4, a mono-carboxylate transporter that has been implicated in lactate efflux from glycolytic muscle fibers and astrocytes in the brain. To address this issue, we co-cultured MCF7 breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts. Interestingly, our results directly show that breast cancer cells specifically induce the expression of MCT4 in cancer-associated fibroblasts; MCF7 cells alone and fibroblasts alone, both failed to express MCT4. We also show that the expression of MCT4 in cancer-associated fibroblasts is due to oxidative stress, and can be prevented by pre-treatment with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-cysteine. In contrast to our results with MCT4, we see that MCT1, a transporter involved in lactate uptake, is specifically upregulated in MCF7 breast cancer cells when co-cultured with fibroblasts. Virtually identical results were also obtained with primary human breast cancer samples. In human breast cancers, MCT4 selectively labels the tumor stroma, e.g., the cancer-associated fibroblast compartment. Conversely, MCT1 was selectively expressed in the epithelial cancer cells within the same tumors. Functionally, we show that overexpression of MCT4 in fibroblasts protects both MCF7 cancer cells and fibroblasts against cell death, under co-culture conditions. Thus, we provide the first evidence for the existence of a stromal-epithelial lactate shuttle in human tumors, analogous to the lactate shuttles that are essential for the normal physiological function of muscle tissue and brain. These data are consistent with the "reverse Warburg effect," which states that cancer-associated fibroblasts undergo aerobic glycolysis, thereby producing lactate, which is utilized as a metabolic substrate by adjacent cancer cells. In this model, "energy transfer" or "metabolic-coupling" between the tumor stroma and epithelial cancer cells "fuels" tumor growth and metastasis, via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in anabolic cancer cells. Most importantly, our current findings provide a new rationale and novel strategy for anti-cancer therapies, by employing MCT inhibitors.
    • R1507, a monoclonal antibody to the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, in patients with recurrent or refractory Ewing sarcoma family of tumors: results of a phase II Sarcoma Alliance for Research through Collaboration study.

      Pappo, A; Patel, S; Crowley, J; Reinke, D; Kuenkele, K; Chawla, S; Toner, G; Maki, R; Meyers, P; Chugh, R; et al. (2011-12-01)
      The type 1 insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT). We conducted a multicenter phase II study of the fully human IGF-1R monoclonal antibody R1507 in patients with recurrent or refractory ESFT.
    • Use of G-CSF during concurrent chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer safety data from a phase II trial.

      Sheikh, Hamid Y; Colaco, Rovel J; Lorigan, Paul C; Blackhall, Fiona H; Califano, Raffaele; Ashcroft, Linda; Taylor, Paul; Thatcher, Nick; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Dept of Clinical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK. (2011-10)
      There is paucity of data in the literature regarding the safety of combining granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) during chemo-radiotherapy (CTRT) in lung cancer patients. The ASCO 2006 recommendations advise against use of CSFs during concomitant mediastinal CTRT. The only randomised study evaluating CSFs in this context showed significant increase in grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia and an excess of pulmonary toxic deaths. In the context of a phase II trial, 38 patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer were randomised to receive once-daily (66 Gy in 33 fractions) or twice-daily (45 Gy in 30 fractions) radiotherapy. Radiotherapy (RT) was given concurrently with cisplatin and etoposide. G-CSF was given as primary or secondary prophylaxis or as a therapeutic measure during an episode of febrile neutropenia according to local protocols. Common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) v3.0 was used to record toxicity. Thirteen (34%) of 38 patients received G-CSF concurrently with RT. With a median follow-up of 16.9 months, there were no treatment related deaths reported. Seven (54%) patients experienced grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia and 5 (38%) experienced grade 3/4 anaemia. Thirty-one percent required platelet transfusions. No episodes of bleeding were observed. There were no cases of grade 3/4 acute pneumonitis. These data suggests that with modern three-dimensional (3D) conformal RT, G-CSF administration concurrently with CTRT does not result in the increase risk of pulmonary toxicity, but does increase the risk of thrombocytopenia. Whether the risks of thrombocytopenia are outweighed by the outcome of timely early concurrent CTRT is being evaluated prospectively in the ongoing phase III CONVERT trial (NCT00433563) in which G-CSF is permitted during thoracic irradiation.
    • Randomized phase II placebo-controlled trial of maintenance therapy using the oral triple angiokinase inhibitor BIBF 1120 after chemotherapy for relapsed ovarian cancer.

      Ledermann, Jonathan A; Hackshaw, Allan; Kaye, Stan B; Jayson, Gordon C; Gabra, Hani; McNeish, Iain; Earl, Helena; Perren, Timothy J; Gore, Martin; Persic, Mojca; et al. (2011-10-01)
      Inhibiting angiogenesis is one of the most promising avenues for new therapies for ovarian cancer. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a novel agent, BIBF 1120, a triple angiokinase inhibitor, after chemotherapy for relapsed disease.
    • Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics: a clinical reality.

      Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Newman, W G; Department of Medical Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. (2011-09)
      Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics strive to explain the interindividual variability in response to drugs due to genetic variation. For certain drugs, genetic tests can reduce adverse drug reactions and improve treatment efficacy. In this review, we will briefly consider some successful tests introduced into clinical practice and potential future developments.
    • Omitting elective nodal irradiation during thoracic irradiation in limited-stage small cell lung cancer - Evidence from a phase II trial.

      Colaco, Rovel J; Sheikh, Hamid Y; Lorigan, Paul C; Blackhall, Fiona H; Hulse, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Ashcroft, Linda; Taylor, Paul; Thatcher, Nick; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; et al. (2012-04)
      Omitting elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in limited-stage disease small cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC) is expected to result in smaller radiation fields. We report on data from a randomised phase II trial that omitted ENI in patients receiving concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for LD-SCLC. 38 patients with LD-SCLC were randomised to receive once-daily (66Gy in 33 fractions) or twice-daily (45Gy in 30 fractions) radiotherapy (RT). 3D-conformal RT was given concurrently with cisplatin and etoposide starting with the second cycle of a total of four cycles. The gross tumour volume was defined as primary tumour with involved lymph nodes (nodes ≥1cm in short axis) identifiable with CT imaging. ENI was not used. Six recurrence patterns were identified: recurrence within planning target volume (PTV) only, recurrence within PTV+regional nodal recurrence and/or distant recurrence, isolated nodal recurrence outside PTV, nodal recurrence outside PTV+distant recurrence, distant metastases only and no recurrence. At median follow-up 16.9 months, 31/38 patients were evaluable and 14/31 patients had relapsed. There were no isolated nodal recurrences. Eight patients relapsed with intra-thoracic disease: 2 within PTV only, 4 within PTV and distantly and 2 with nodal recurrence outside PTV plus distant metastases. Rates of grade 3+ acute oesophagitis and pneumonitis in the 31 evaluable patients were 23 and 3% respectively. In our study of LD-SCLC, omitting ENI based on CT imaging was not associated with a high risk of isolated nodal recurrence, although further prospective studies are needed to confirm this. Routine ENI omission will be further evaluated prospectively in the ongoing phase III CONVERT trial (NCT00433563).
    • A pilot study to explore circulating tumour cells in pancreatic cancer as a novel biomarker.

      Khoja, Leila; Backen, Alison C; Sloane, Robert; Menasce, Lia P; Ryder, W David J; Krebs, Matthew G; Board, Ruth E; Clack, G; Hughes, A; Blackhall, Fiona H; et al. (2012-01-31)
      Obtaining tissue for pancreatic carcinoma diagnosis and biomarker assessment to aid drug development is challenging. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) may represent a potential biomarker to address these unmet needs. We compared prospectively the utility of two platforms for CTC enumeration and characterisation in pancreatic cancer patients in a pilot exploratory study.
    • Biomarkers for small cell lung cancer: Neuroendocrine, epithelial and circulating tumour cells.

      Stovold, Rachel; Blackhall, Fiona H; Meredith, S; Hou, Jian-Mei; Dive, Caroline; White, A; Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, AV Hill Building, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK; Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX, UK. (2011-12-15)
      Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterised by an aggressive clinical course with invariable resistance to chemotherapy despite initially high response rates. There has been little improvement in outcome over the past few decades, with no breakthrough yet in targeted therapies. Recent preclinical data and studies of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) highlight distinct cellular heterogeneity within SCLC. Better understanding of how these phenotypes contribute to metastasis and tumour progression might pave the way for development of more successful targeted therapies. Here we review these studies, their implications for future research and for the incorporation of biomarkers reflecting neuroendocrine, epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes in clinical studies.
    • A patient with a metastatic gastroenteropancreatic endocrine carcinoma causing hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and the carcinoid syndrome.

      Hinchliffe, E; Allcock, R L; Mansoor, Was; Myers, M A; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital of South Manchester, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT, UK. (2011-11)
      We present the case of a 57-year-old patient who initially presented with a constellation of symptoms including intense pruritis, flushing and diarrhoea. Following several months clinical deterioration, the patient was investigated radiologically, where multiple hepatic tumours were identified. Liver biopsy confirmed the presence of a well-differentiated metastatic gastroenteropancreatic endocrine carcinoma with biochemical evidence of serotonin secretion. Over a period of six months, the clinical course of the patient's disease progressed whereby severe hypoglycaemia became the major manifestation. Subsequent biochemical investigations confirmed the diagnosis of an insulinoma. Extensive radiological investigation revealed a solitary primary pancreatic tumour, indicating the presence of a metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumour (PET) secreting both insulin and serotonin. The patient was treated with a chemotherapy regimen consisting of 12 cycles of 5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin, responding clinically - improved World Health Organization performance score from 3 to 1, biochemically - significantly reduced plasma chromogranin A and cancer antigen 19-9 concentrations and improved liver function tests, and radiologically - reduced pancreatic and hepatic tumour size. This is the first report of a primary PET secreting insulin and serotonin. Due to the association of serotonin-secreting gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumours (GEP-ETs) with multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 (MEN1) and biochemical evidence of an insulinoma, MEN1 should also be considered in such cases. The case provides further evidence for the biological heterogeneity of GEP-ETs and the myriad secretory humoral products and resultant clinical syndromes arising from such tumours.
    • Phase I study to assess the safety and tolerability of olaparib in combination with bevacizumab in patients with advanced solid tumours.

      Dean, Emma J; Middleton, M R; Pwint, T; Swaisland, H; Carmichael, J; Goodege-Kunwar, P; Ranson, Malcolm R; Clinical Trials Unit, Department of Medical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, The University of Manchester, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4, BX, UK. emma.dean@christie.nhs.uk (2012-01-31)
      Olaparib (AZD2281) is a potent oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor with anti-tumour activity and acceptable toxicity as monotherapy in patients with BRCA-deficient cancers. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor bevacizumab has been incorporated into standard of care with chemotherapy in various tumours. This phase I study established the safety, tolerability and clinical pharmacokinetics of olaparib alone and in combination with bevacizumab.
    • Understanding the Warburg effect and the prognostic value of stromal caveolin-1 as a marker of a lethal tumor microenvironment.

      Sotgia, F; Martinez-Outschoorn, U E; Pavlides, S; Howell, Anthony; Pestell, R G; Lisanti, M P; The Jefferson Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine Center, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. (2011)
      Cancer cells show a broad spectrum of bioenergetic states, with some cells using aerobic glycolysis while others rely on oxidative phosphorylation as their main source of energy. In addition, there is mounting evidence that metabolic coupling occurs in aggressive tumors, between epithelial cancer cells and the stromal compartment, and between well-oxygenated and hypoxic compartments. We recently showed that oxidative stress in the tumor stroma, due to aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction, is important for cancer cell mutagenesis and tumor progression. More specifically , increased autophagy/mitophagy in the tumor stroma drives a form of parasitic epithelial-stromal metabolic coupling. These findings explain why it is effective to treat tumors with either inducers or inhibitors of autophagy, as both would disrupt this energetic coupling. We also discuss evidence that glutamine addiction in cancer cells produces ammonia via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. Ammonia production in cancer cells, in turn, could then help maintain autophagy in the tumor stromal compartment. In this vicious cycle, the initial glutamine provided to cancer cells would be produced by autophagy in the tumor stroma. Thus, we believe that parasitic epithelial-stromal metabolic coupling has important implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy, for example, in designing novel metabolic imaging techniques and establishing new targeted therapies. In direct support of this notion, we identified a loss of stromal caveolin-1 as a marker of oxidative stress, hypoxia, and autophagy in the tumor microenvironment, explaining its powerful predictive value. Loss of stromal caveolin-1 in breast cancers is associated with early tumor recurrence, metastasis, and drug resistance, leading to poor clinical outcome.
    • Anti-estrogen resistance in breast cancer is induced by the tumor microenvironment and can be overcome by inhibiting mitochondrial function in epithelial cancer cells.

      Martinez-Outschoorn, U E; Goldberg, A; Lin, Z; Ko, Y H; Flomenberg, N; Wang, C; Pavlides, S; Pestell, R; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, F; et al. (2011-11-15)
      Here, we show that tamoxifen resistance is induced by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Coculture of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF7 cells with fibroblasts induces tamoxifen and fulvestrant resistance with 4.4 and 2.5-fold reductions, respectively, in apoptosis compared with homotypic MCF7 cell cultures. Treatment of MCF7 cells cultured alone with high-energy mitochondrial "fuels" (L-lactate or ketone bodies) is sufficient to confer tamoxifen resistance, mimicking the effects of coculture with fibroblasts. To further demonstrate that epithelial cancer cell mitochondrial activity is the origin of tamoxifen resistance, we employed complementary pharmacological and genetic approaches. First, we studied the effects of two mitochondrial "poisons," namely metformin and arsenic trioxide (ATO), on fibroblast-induced tamoxifen resistance. We show here that treatment with metformin or ATO overcomes fibroblast-induced tamoxifen resistance in MCF7 cells. Treatment with the combination of tamoxifen plus metformin or ATO leads to increases in glucose uptake in MCF7 cells, reflecting metabolic uncoupling between epithelial cancer cells and fibroblasts. In coculture, tamoxifen induces the upregulation of TIGAR (TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator), a p53 regulated gene that simultaneously inhibits glycolysis, autophagy and apoptosis and reduces ROS generation, thereby promoting oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. To genetically mimic the effects of coculture, we next recombinantly overexpressed TIGAR in MCF7 cells. Remarkably, TIGAR overexpression protects epithelial cancer cells from tamoxifen-induced apoptosis, providing genetic evidence that increased mitochondrial function confers tamoxifen resistance. Finally, CAFs also protect MCF7 cells against apoptosis induced by other anticancer agents, such as the topoisomerase inhibitor doxorubicin (adriamycin) and the PARP-1 inhibitor ABT-888. These results suggest that the tumor microenvironment may be a general mechanism for conferring drug resistance. In summary, we have discovered that mitochondrial activity in epithelial cancer cells drives tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer and that mitochondrial "poisons" are able to re-sensitize these cancer cells to tamoxifen. In this context, TIGAR may be a key "druggable" target for preventing drug resistance in cancer cells, as it protects cancer cells against the onset of stress-induced mitochondrial dys-function and aerobic glycolysis.
    • Targeted agents in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Clinical developments and rationale for the combination with thoracic radiotherapy.

      Koh, Pek K; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Blackhall, Fiona H; De Ruysscher, D; Department of Clinical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. (2011-12-22)
      In recent years there has been undoubted progress in the evaluation and development of targeted agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A major contributor has been the discovery of molecular subtypes harbouring a critical oncogenic driver mutation, specifically sensitizing mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene and the EML4-ALK gene translocation. Radiotherapy is a cornerstone of therapy for the curative intent treatment of early stage, localized disease; and for the palliation of symptoms in advanced, metastatic disease. In this molecular targeted era there is limited understanding of how best to combine targeted agents with radiotherapy and in general clinical studies with radiotherapy have lagged behind studies of targeted agents with chemotherapy. Here we summarise the progress made to date and highlight future directions.
    • Prognostic value of a combined estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 immunohistochemical score and comparison with the Genomic Health recurrence score in early breast cancer.

      Cuzick, J; Dowsett, M; Pineda, S; Wale, C; Salter, J; Quinn, E; Zabaglo, L; Mallon, E; Green, A R; Ellis, I O; et al. (2011-11-10)
      We recently reported that the mRNA-based, 21-gene Genomic Health recurrence score (GHI-RS) provided additional prognostic information regarding distant recurrence beyond that obtained from classical clinicopathologic factors (age, nodal status, tumor size, grade, endocrine treatment) in women with early breast cancer, confirming earlier reports. The aim of this article is to determine how much of this information is contained in standard immunohistochemical (IHC) markers.
    • Influence of comorbidities and age on risk of death without recurrence: a retrospective analysis of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination trial.

      Ring, A; Sestak, I; Baum, M; Howell, Anthony; Buzdar, A; Dowsett, M; Forbes, J F; Cuzick, J; Sussex Cancer Centre, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, BN2 5BE, United Kingdom. (2011-11-10)
      The Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination (ATAC) study was a double-blind randomized trial in which postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer were assigned to receive anastrozole, tamoxifen, or the combination. We have conducted a retrospective analysis to examine the effects of comorbidities and age on treatment received, breast cancer-related mortality, and competing causes of mortality.