• Multicenter phase II study of lapatinib in patients with brain metastases from HER2-positive breast cancer.

      Lin, Nancy U; Diéras, Véronique; Paul, Devchand; Lossignol, Dominique; Christodoulou, Christos; Stemmler, Hans-Joachim; Roché, Henri; Liu, Minetta C; Greil, Richard; Ciruelos, Eva; et al. (2009-02-15)
      PURPOSE: Brain metastases develop in one third of patients with advanced HER2+ breast cancer. Effective therapy for patients with central nervous system (CNS) progression after cranial radiation is extremely limited and represents a major clinical challenge. Lapatinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor/HER2 inhibitor, was associated with regressions of CNS lesions in a small phase 2 trial. The current study was done to further evaluate the CNS activity of lapatinib. The study was later amended to allow patients who progressed on lapatinib the option of receiving lapatinib plus capecitabine. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eligible patients had HER2+ breast cancer, progressive brain metastases, prior trastuzumab, and cranial radiotherapy. The primary end point was CNS objective response, defined as >or=50% volumetric reduction of CNS lesion(s) in the absence of increasing steroid use, progressive neurologic signs and symptoms, or progressive extra-CNS disease. RESULTS: Two-hundred and forty-two patients entered the study. CNS objective responses to lapatinib were observed in 6% of patients. In an exploratory analysis, 21% of patients experienced a >or=20% volumetric reduction in their CNS lesions. An association was observed between volumetric reduction and improvement in progression-free survival and neurologic signs and symptoms. Of the 50 evaluable patients who entered the lapatinib plus capecitabine extension, 20% experienced a CNS objective response and 40% experienced a >or=20% volumetric reduction in their CNS lesions. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the modest CNS antitumor activity of lapatinib. Additional responses were observed with the combination of lapatinib and capecitabine. Further studies of lapatinib-based regimens for CNS metastases from HER2+ breast cancer are warranted.
    • Predictive algorithms for adjuvant therapy: TransATAC.

      Dowsett, Mitch; Salter, Janine; Zabaglo, Lila; Mallon, Elizabeth A; Howell, Anthony; Buzdar, Aman; Forbes, John F; Pineda, S; Cuzick, Jack; Academic Department of Biochemistry, Royal Marsden Hospital, Fulham Road, London SW36JJ, UK. (2011-07)
      Estrogen receptor (ER) positive primary breast cancers have a wide range of clinical outcomes. Prediction of the likely course of the disease aids treatment decision-making. In the translational arm of the ATAC (anastrozole or tamoxifen alone or combined) trial (TransATAC) we have assessed individual and multiparameter biomarkers for their prediction of overall and distant recurrence. None of the biomarkers identified differential benefit for anastrozole versus tamoxifen. Each of ER, PgR, HER2 and Ki67 was associated with risk of recurrence. A combination of these to create a single predictor IHC4 was as informative as the 21-gene recurrence score (RS). Integration of each of these molecular profiles with classical clinicopathologic variables provided the most accurate prediction of outcome.
    • Prognostic value of a combined estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 immunohistochemical score and comparison with the Genomic Health recurrence score in early breast cancer.

      Cuzick, J; Dowsett, M; Pineda, S; Wale, C; Salter, J; Quinn, E; Zabaglo, L; Mallon, E; Green, A R; Ellis, I O; et al. (2011-11-10)
      We recently reported that the mRNA-based, 21-gene Genomic Health recurrence score (GHI-RS) provided additional prognostic information regarding distant recurrence beyond that obtained from classical clinicopathologic factors (age, nodal status, tumor size, grade, endocrine treatment) in women with early breast cancer, confirming earlier reports. The aim of this article is to determine how much of this information is contained in standard immunohistochemical (IHC) markers.
    • Trastuzumab plus anastrozole versus anastrozole alone for the treatment of postmenopausal women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III TAnDEM study.

      Kaufman, Bella; Mackey, John R; Clemens, Michael R; Bapsy, Poonamalle P; Vaid, Ashok; Wardley, Andrew M; Tjulandin, Sergei; Jahn, Michaela; Lehle, Michaela; Feyereislova, Andrea; et al. (2009-11-20)
      PURPOSE: TAnDEM is the first randomized phase III study to combine a hormonal agent and trastuzumab without chemotherapy as treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/hormone receptor-copositive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postmenopausal women with HER2/hormone receptor-copositive MBC were randomly assigned to anastrozole (1 mg/d orally) with or without trastuzumab (4 mg/kg intravenous infusion on day 1, then 2 mg/kg every week) until progression. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat population. Results Overall, 103 patients received trastuzumab plus anastrozole; 104 received anastrozole alone. Patients in the trastuzumab plus anastrozole arm experienced significant improvements in PFS compared with patients receiving anastrozole alone (hazard ratio = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.84; median PFS, 4.8 v 2.4 months; log-rank P = .0016). In patients with centrally confirmed hormone receptor positivity (n = 150), median PFS was 5.6 and 3.8 months in the trastuzumab plus anastrozole and anastrozole alone arms, respectively (log-rank P = .006). Overall survival in the overall and centrally confirmed hormone receptor-positive populations showed no statistically significant treatment difference; however, 70% of patients in the anastrozole alone arm crossed over to receive trastuzumab after progression on anastrozole alone. Incidence of grade 3 and 4 adverse events was 23% and 5%, respectively, in the trastuzumab plus anastrozole arm, and 15% and 1%, respectively, in the anastrozole alone arm; one patient in the combination arm experienced New York Heart Association class II congestive heart failure. CONCLUSION: Trastuzumab plus anastrozole improves outcomes for patients with HER2/hormone receptor-copositive MBC compared with anastrozole alone, although adverse events and serious adverse events were more frequent with the combination.