• Adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracil plus folinic acid vs gemcitabine following pancreatic cancer resection: a randomized controlled trial.

      Neoptolemos, John P; Stocken, Deborah D; Bassi, Claudio; Ghaneh, Paula; Cunningham, David; Goldstein, David; Padbury, Robert; Moore, Malcolm J; Gallinger, Steven; Mariette, Christophe; et al. (2010-09-08)
      CONTEXT: Adjuvant fluorouracil has been shown to be of benefit for patients with resected pancreatic cancer. Gemcitabine is known to be the most effective agent in advanced disease as well as an effective agent in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fluorouracil or gemcitabine is superior in terms of overall survival as adjuvant treatment following resection of pancreatic cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: The European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer (ESPAC)-3 trial, an open-label, phase 3, randomized controlled trial conducted in 159 pancreatic cancer centers in Europe, Australasia, Japan, and Canada. Included in ESPAC-3 version 2 were 1088 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who had undergone cancer resection; patients were randomized between July 2000 and January 2007 and underwent at least 2 years of follow-up. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received either fluorouracil plus folinic acid (folinic acid, 20 mg/m(2), intravenous bolus injection, followed by fluorouracil, 425 mg/m(2) intravenous bolus injection given 1-5 days every 28 days) (n = 551) or gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2) intravenous infusion once a week for 3 of every 4 weeks) (n = 537) for 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measure was overall survival; secondary measures were toxicity, progression-free survival, and quality of life. RESULTS: Final analysis was carried out on an intention-to-treat basis after a median of 34.2 (interquartile range, 27.1-43.4) months' follow-up after 753 deaths (69%). Median survival was 23.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.1-25.0) months for patients treated with fluorouracil plus folinic acid and 23.6 (95% CI, 21.4-26.4) months for those treated with gemcitabine (chi(1)(2) = 0.7; P = .39; hazard ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.81-1.08]). Seventy-seven patients (14%) receiving fluorouracil plus folinic acid had 97 treatment-related serious adverse events, compared with 40 patients (7.5%) receiving gemcitabine, who had 52 events (P < .001). There were no significant differences in either progression-free survival or global quality-of-life scores between the treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Compared with the use of fluorouracil plus folinic acid, gemcitabine did not result in improved overall survival in patients with completely resected pancreatic cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00058201.
    • Early versus delayed treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer (MRC OV05/EORTC 55955): a randomised trial.

      Rustin, G; Van der Burg, M; Griffin, C; Guthrie, D; Lamont, A; Jayson, Gordon C; Kristensen, G; Mediola, C; Coens, C; Qian, W; et al. (2010-10-02)
      BACKGROUND: Serum CA125 concentration often rises several months before clinical or symptomatic relapse in women with ovarian cancer. In the MRC OV05/EORTC 55955 collaborative trial, we aimed to establish the benefits of early treatment on the basis of increased CA125 concentrations compared with delayed treatment on the basis of clinical recurrence. METHODS: Women with ovarian cancer in complete remission after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy and a normal CA125 concentration were registered for this randomised controlled trial. Clinical examination and CA125 measurement were done every 3 months. Patients and investigators were masked to CA125 results, which were monitored by coordinating centres. If CA125 concentration exceeded twice the upper limit of normal, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by minimisation to early or delayed chemotherapy. Patients and clinical sites were informed of allocation to early treatment, and treatment was started as soon as possible within 28 days of the increased CA125 measurement. Patients assigned to delayed treatment continued masked CA125 measurements, with treatment commencing at clinical or symptomatic relapse. All patients were treated according to standard local practice. The primary outcome was overall survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, ISRCTN87786644. FINDINGS: 1442 patients were registered for the trial, of whom 529 were randomly assigned to treatment groups and were included in our analysis (265 early, 264 delayed). With a median follow-up of 56·9 months (IQR 37·4-81·8) from randomisation and 370 deaths (186 early, 184 delayed), there was no evidence of a difference in overall survival between early and delayed treatment (HR 0·98, 95% CI 0·80-1·20, p=0·85). Median survival from randomisation was 25·7 months (95% CI 23·0-27·9) for patients on early treatment and 27·1 months (22·8-30·9) for those on delayed treatment. INTERPRETATION: Our findings showed no evidence of a survival benefit with early treatment of relapse on the basis of a raised CA125 concentration alone, and therefore the value of routine measurement of CA125 in the follow-up of patients with ovarian cancer who attain a complete response after first-line treatment is not proven. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.
    • Impact of skeletal complications on patients' quality of life, mobility, and functional independence.

      Costa, Luis; Badia, Xavier; Chow, Edward; Lipton, Allan; Wardley, Andrew M; Instituto de Medicina Molecular-Lisboa, Servico de Oncologia, Hospital de Santa Maria, Av Professor Egaz Moniz, Lisbon, 1649-039, Portugal. luiscosta.p@netcabo.pt (2008-08)
      INTRODUCTION: Skeletal-related events (SREs) from malignant bone disease cause considerable morbidity and can dramatically reduce patients' quality of life. DISCUSSION: Pathologic fractures often require surgical intervention and palliative radiotherapy. Thus, patients suffer impaired mobility, loss of functional independence, and diminished health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Bisphosphonates can delay the onset and reduce the incidence of SREs and have become the standard of care for the treatment of malignant bone disease; however, minimal information on the effects of bisphosphonate treatment on HRQOL is available. Targeted HRQOL assessments for patients with malignant bone disease are currently under development and are discussed herein.
    • The need for advanced breast cancer treatment guidelines: results of an internet-based survey.

      Wardley, Andrew M; Department of Medical Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. andrew.wardley@christie.nhs.uk (2008-06)
      Although not curable, advanced breast cancer is treatable, however, treatment options are many and varied, and unlike early breast cancer (EBC), consistent guidelines are lacking. Breast cancer physicians were surveyed to assess the emotional impact of recurrence, factors affecting their treatment decisions, the role of guidelines in the management of advanced breast cancer and the need for new guidelines. Overall, distress levels were higher at recurrence than at first diagnosis of early breast cancer for both patients and physicians and the goal of treatment for this disease stage was to improve the patient's quality of life, delay disease progression and improve overall survival. While most respondents (96%) use the currently available guidelines, improvements are required, including the development of uniform global guidelines and recommendations for specific patient groups. Interactive computer programs and e-mail updates should also be utilised to ensure physicians are able to make fully informed decisions regarding optimum treatment.
    • Phase II study of short-course capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) followed by maintenance capecitabine in advanced colorectal cancer: XelQuali study.

      Waddell, Thomas K; Gollins, S; Soe, W; Valle, Juan W; Allen, J; Bentley, D E; Morris, J; Lloyd, A; Swindell, Ric; Taylor, M B; et al. (2010-07-30)
      PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and quality of life of a short course of oxaliplatin plus capecitabine (XELOX) followed by single-agent capecitabine in patients with previously untreated, inoperable, metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients received intravenous oxaliplatin 130 mg/m(2) on d1 plus oral capecitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) twice daily (bid) on d1-14 every 21 days for four cycles. Patients achieving stable disease (SD) or better than received capecitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) bid on d1-14 every 21 days until disease progression. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Overall, 21/45 (47%) of patients responded to the initial XELOX chemotherapy whilst SD or better was documented in 76%. Median PFS was 6.7 (95% CI 5.7-9.6) months, and median overall survival (OS) was 20.5 (95% CI 13.1-28.1) months. In the 34 patients who then received capecitabine maintenance therapy, the median PFS was 8.1 (95% CI 6.2-11.8) months and median OS was 23.1 (95% CI 17.8-28.5) months. A marked reduction in the vast majority of all grades of adverse event occurred on switching from initial XELOX to maintenance capecitabine chemotherapy including grades 1-2 (77 vs. 47%) and grade 3 (7 vs. 3%) neuropathy, diarrhoea and lethargy. CONCLUSIONS: Short-course XELOX followed by capecitabine maintenance therapy provides an active and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. A median OS of more than 20 months is promising and by limiting the number of oxaliplatin infusions, this approach minimises the risk of unwanted cumulative neurotoxicity, is cheaper and more convenient for both patients and healthcare providers.
    • Phase III randomized comparison of gemcitabine versus gemcitabine plus capecitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

      Cunningham, D; Chau, I; Stocken, D; Valle, Juan W; Smith, David; Steward, William P; Harper, P; Dunn, J; Tudur-Smith, C; West, J; et al. (2009-11-20)
      PURPOSE: Both gemcitabine (GEM) and fluoropyrimidines are valuable treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer. This open-label study was designed to compare the overall survival (OS) of patients randomly assigned to GEM alone or GEM plus capecitabine (GEM-CAP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with previously untreated histologically or cytologically proven locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma of the pancreas with a performance status
    • Randomised phase II trial of 4 dose levels of single agent docetaxel in performance status (PS) 2 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): DOC PS2 trial. Manchester lung cancer group.

      Califano, Raffaele; Griffiths, Richard W; Lorigan, Paul C; Ashcroft, Linda; Taylor, Paul; Burt, Paul A; Lee, Lip W; Chittalia, Abbas; Harris, Maggie A; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; et al. (2011-09)
      The role of chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC patients and ECOG PS2 remains controversial. We evaluated 4 doses of 3-weekly docetaxel to identify a less toxic, clinically effective dose.
    • Randomized phase IIIb trial evaluating the continuation of bevacizumab beyond disease progression in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer after first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus platinum-based chemotherapy: treatment rationale and protocol dynamics of the AvaALL (MO22097) trial.

      Gridelli, C; Bennouna, J; de Castro, J; Dingemans, A; Griesinger, F; Grossi, F; Rossi, A; Thatcher, Nick; Wong, E K; Langer, C; et al. (2011-11)
      We present the treatment rationale and study design of the AvaALL (MO22097; ClinicalTrials: NCT01351415) trial, a multicenter, open-label, randomized, two-arm, phase IIIb study. Patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease has progressed after four to six cycles of first-line treatment with bevacizumab plus a platinum-based doublet and a minimum of two cycles of bevacizumab (monotherapy) maintenance treatment will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to one of two study arms. Patients treated on arm A will receive bevacizumab 7.5 or 15 mg/kg intravenously (I.V.) on day 1, every 21 days plus, investigator's choice of agents indicated for use in second-line (limited to pemetrexed, docetaxel, or erlotinib) and subsequent lines of treatment. Patients treated on arm B, will receive investigator's choice of agents alone indicated for use in second-line and subsequent lines of treatment, but no further bevacizumab treatment. The primary endpoint of this study is overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints include the 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month OS rates, progression-free survival, and time to progression at second and third progressive disease (PD), response rate, disease control rates, and duration of response at second and third PD. Additionally, efficacy in the subgroup of patients with adenocarcinoma, and the safety of bevacizumab treatment across multiple lines of treatment will be assessed. Exploratory objectives include assessment of the quality of life through multiple lines of treatment, comparison of the efficacy between Asian and non-Asian patients, and correlation of biomarkers with efficacy outcomes, disease response, and adverse events.
    • Randomized, phase III trial of sequential epirubicin and docetaxel versus epirubicin alone in postmenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer.

      Coombes, R C; Bliss, J M; Espie, M; Erdkamp, F; Wals, J; Tres, A; Marty, M; Coleman, R E; Tubiana-Mathieu, N; den Boer, M O; et al. (2011-08-20)
      The Docetaxel Epirubicin Adjuvant (DEVA) trial evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of incorporating docetaxel after epirubicin to create a sequential anthracycline-taxane regimen in early breast cancer.
    • Sunitinib malate for the treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

      Raymond, E; Dahan, L; Raoul, J; Bang, Y; Borbath, I; Lombard-Bohas, C; Valle, Juan W; Metrakos, P; Smith, D; Vinik, A; et al. (2011-02-10)
      The multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib has shown activity against pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in preclinical models and phase 1 and 2 trials.