• Antivascular agents for non-small-cell lung cancer: current status and future directions.

      Amir, Eitan; Mandoky, Laszlo; Blackhall, Fiona H; Thatcher, Nick; Klepetko, Walter; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan; Reza Hoda, Mir Ali; Ostoros, Gyula; Dank, Magdolna; Dome, Balazs; et al. (2009-11)
      BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in surgery and chemo(radio)therapy which have allowed for modest advances in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), survival remains poor and further improvements are needed. Attention over recent years has focused, therefore, on targeted therapies, with notable success in the development of antivascular drugs. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current knowledge on antivascular therapy in patients with NSCLC. METHOD: Review of randomized controlled trials exploring treatment of NSCLC patients with antivascular drugs. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), when added to cytotoxic chemotherapy, was the first treatment to prolong the overall survival of patients with advanced NSCLC beyond 12 months, a significant breakthrough in the management of advanced NSCLC. Small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and alternative antivascular strategies such as VEGF-trap and vascular disrupting agents are also being investigated and have shown promise in clinical trials. This review summarizes the most recent and important findings in antivascular agents in NSCLC.
    • Biomarkers of angiogenesis and their role in the development of VEGF inhibitors.

      Murukesh, N; Dive, Caroline; Jayson, Gordon C; Department of Medical Oncology, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and University of Manchester, Wilmslow Road, Withington, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. (2010-01-05)
      Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been confirmed as an important therapeutic target in randomised clinical trials in multiple disease settings. However, the extent to which individual patients benefit from VEGF inhibitors is unclear. If we are to optimise the use of these drugs or develop combination regimens that build on this efficacy, it is critical to identify those patients who are likely to benefit, particularly as these agents can be toxic and are expensive. To this end, biomarkers have been evaluated in tissue, in circulation and by imaging. Consistent drug-induced increases in plasma VEGF-A and blood pressure, as well as reductions in soluble VEGF-R2 and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI parameters have been reported. In some clinical trials, biomarker changes were statistically significant and associated with clinical end points, but there is considerable heterogeneity between studies that are to some extent attributable to methodological issues. On the basis of observations with these biomarkers, it is now appropriate to conduct detailed prospective studies to define a suite of predictive, pharmacodynamic and surrogate response biomarkers that identify those patients most likely to benefit from and monitor their response to this novel class of drugs.
    • Development of antiangiogenic agents for ovarian cancer.

      Collinson, Fiona J; Hall, Geoff D; Perren, Timothy J; Jayson, Gordon C; Department of Medical Oncology, St James' University Hospital, Leeds, UK. fjcollinson@doctors.org.uk (2008-01)
      Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a major source of cancer morbidity and mortality, despite advances in surgical and chemotherapeutic management. The molecular pathways that control angiogenesis have been demonstrated to be key to the pathogenesis of EOC, and have been shown to have prognostic significance. Increased understanding of the pathways and molecules involved in angiogenesis has allowed the identification of a number of targets for antiangiogenic therapies and the development of a variety of antiangiogenic drugs. There is now significant preclinical evidence, and a growing body of clinical data, demonstrating promising results with antiangiogenic drugs in the treatment of EOC. Single-agent VEGF inhibitor response rates in pretreated patients of between 15 and 20% have been reported, with much higher response rates when used in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. These benefits, however, must be balanced with the toxicities associated with these drugs, particularly the more serious ones, such as gastrointestinal perforation. The results of ongoing and future randomized clinical trials will confirm if, and how, antiangiogenic therapies should be integrated into the routine management of EOC. However, critical issues, such as the relative importance of combination remission induction regimens and maintenance therapy, remain poorly defined.
    • A phase I study to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a dual VEGFR and FGFR inhibitor, brivanib, in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors.

      Jonker, D J; Rosen, L S; Sawyer, M B; de Braud, F; Wilding, G; Sweeney, C J; Jayson, Gordon C; McArthur, G A; Rustin, G; Goss, G; et al. (2011-06)
      This study was designed to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of brivanib in patients with advanced/metastatic solid tumors.
    • Targeting blood vessels for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

      Amir, Eitan; Hughes, Sarah; Blackhall, Fiona H; Thatcher, Nick; Ostoros, Gyula; Timar, Jozsef; Tovari, Jozsef; Kovacs, Gabor; Dome, Balazs; Department of Medical Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. (2008-08)
      Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Although modest survival benefit has been observed with surgery, radiotherapy and platinum-based chemotherapy, an efficacy plateau has been reached. It has become obvious, therefore, that additional treatments are needed in order to provide an improved survival benefit for these patients. The use of molecular targeted therapies, particularly those against tumor capillaries, has the potential to improve outcomes for NSCLC patients. Bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is the first targeted drug that has shown survival advantage when combined with chemotherapy in NSCLC. Other antivascular agents, including vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) and different small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, have also shown promise in phase I and II trials in NSCLC. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical properties of these drugs and to discuss the evidence that supports their use in the treatment of NSCLC. Furthermore, we plan to review the main pitfalls of antivascular strategies in NSCLC cancer therapy as well as assess the future direction of these treatment methods with an emphasis on clarifying the molecular background of the effects of these drugs and defining the biomarkers.