• A20 deletion is associated with copy number gain at the TNFA/B/C locus and occurs preferentially in translocation-negative MALT lymphoma of the ocular adnexa and salivary glands.

      Chanudet, E; Ye, Hongtao; Ferry, J; Bacon, C M; Adam, P; Müller-Hermelink, H K; Radford, John A; Pileri, S A; Ichimura, K; Collins, V P; et al. (2009-02)
      The genetic basis of MALT lymphoma is largely unknown. Characteristic chromosomal translocations are frequently associated with gastric and pulmonary cases, but are rare at other sites. We compared the genetic profiles of 33 ocular adnexal and 25 pulmonary MALT lymphomas by 1 Mb array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and revealed recurrent 6q23 losses and 6p21.2-6p22.1 gains exclusive to ocular cases. High-resolution chromosome 6 tile-path array-CGH identified NF-kappaB inhibitor A20 as the target of 6q23.3 deletion and TNFA/B/C locus as a putative target of 6p21.2-22.1 gain. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that A20 deletion occurred in MALT lymphoma of the ocular adnexa (8/42=19%), salivary gland (2/24=8%), thyroid (1/9=11%) and liver (1/2), but not in the lung (26), stomach (45) and skin (13). Homozygous deletion was observed in three cases. A20 deletion and TNFA/B/C gain were significantly associated (p<0.001) and exclusively found in cases without characteristic translocation. In ocular cases, A20 deletion was associated with concurrent involvement of different adnexal tissues or extraocular sites at diagnosis (p=0.007), a higher proportion of relapse (67% versus 37%) and a shorter relapse-free survival (p=0.033). A20 deletion and gain at TNFA/B/C locus may thus play an important role in the development of translocation-negative MALT lymphoma.
    • A multicentre study of capecitabine, oxaliplatin plus bevacizumab as perioperative treatment of patients with poor-risk colorectal liver-only metastases not selected for upfront resection.

      Wong, R; Cunningham, D; Barbachano, Y; Saffery, C; Valle, Juan W; Hickish, T; Mudan, S; Brown, G; Khan, A; Wotherspoon, A; et al. (2011-09)
      Perioperative chemotherapy improves outcome in resectable colorectal liver-only metastasis (CLM). This study aimed to evaluate perioperative CAPOX (capecitabine-oxaliplatin) plus bevacizumab in patients with poor-risk CLM not selected for upfront resection.
    • A patient with a metastatic gastroenteropancreatic endocrine carcinoma causing hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and the carcinoid syndrome.

      Hinchliffe, E; Allcock, R L; Mansoor, Was; Myers, M A; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital of South Manchester, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT, UK. (2011-11)
      We present the case of a 57-year-old patient who initially presented with a constellation of symptoms including intense pruritis, flushing and diarrhoea. Following several months clinical deterioration, the patient was investigated radiologically, where multiple hepatic tumours were identified. Liver biopsy confirmed the presence of a well-differentiated metastatic gastroenteropancreatic endocrine carcinoma with biochemical evidence of serotonin secretion. Over a period of six months, the clinical course of the patient's disease progressed whereby severe hypoglycaemia became the major manifestation. Subsequent biochemical investigations confirmed the diagnosis of an insulinoma. Extensive radiological investigation revealed a solitary primary pancreatic tumour, indicating the presence of a metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumour (PET) secreting both insulin and serotonin. The patient was treated with a chemotherapy regimen consisting of 12 cycles of 5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin, responding clinically - improved World Health Organization performance score from 3 to 1, biochemically - significantly reduced plasma chromogranin A and cancer antigen 19-9 concentrations and improved liver function tests, and radiologically - reduced pancreatic and hepatic tumour size. This is the first report of a primary PET secreting insulin and serotonin. Due to the association of serotonin-secreting gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumours (GEP-ETs) with multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 (MEN1) and biochemical evidence of an insulinoma, MEN1 should also be considered in such cases. The case provides further evidence for the biological heterogeneity of GEP-ETs and the myriad secretory humoral products and resultant clinical syndromes arising from such tumours.
    • Phase II study of weekly plitidepsin as second-line therapy for small cell lung cancer.

      Eisen, Tim; Thatcher, Nick; Leyvraz, Serge; Miller, Wilson H; Couture, Felix; Lorigan, Paul C; Lüthi, François; Small, David; Tanovic, Adnan; O'Brien, M; et al. (2009-04)
      OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antitumor activity and safety profile of plitidepsin administered as a 1h weekly intravenous (i.v.) infusion of 3.2mg/m(2) to patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) who relapsed or progressed after one line of chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a multicenter, open-label, single-arm, exploratory, phase II clinical trial. Treatment lasted until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, patient refusal or treatment delay for >2 weeks. Objective response rate (primary efficacy endpoint) was evaluated according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST). The rate of stable disease (SD) lasting for at least 6 months and time-to-event variables were secondary endpoints of efficacy. Toxicity was assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) version 2.0. RESULTS: Twenty pretreated SCLC patients (median age, 60 years) with extensive (n = 13) or limited-stage disease (n = 7) received a total of 24 treatment cycles (median, one cycle per patient; range, 1-2). Objective tumor responses were not observed and only one of the 17 evaluable patients had SD. With a median follow-up of 11.8 months, the progression-free survival and the median overall survival were 1.3 months and 4.8 months, respectively. The most troubling or common toxicities were fatigue, muscle weakness, lymphopenia, anemia (no patients showed neutropenia), and asymptomatic, non-cumulative increase of transaminases levels and alkaline phosphatase. CONCLUSION: This clinical trial shows that a cycle of 1h weekly i.v. infusion of plitidepsin (3.2mg/m(2)) was generally well tolerated other than fatigue and muscle weakness in patients with pretreated SCLC. One patient died due to multi-organ failure. The absence of antitumor activity found here precludes further studies of this plitidepsin schedule as second-line single-agent treatment of SCLC.
    • Preliminary study of oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation in MRI: a potential novel biomarker of oxygenation changes in solid tumors.

      O'Connor, James P B; Naish, Josephine H; Parker, Geoff J M; Waterton, John C; Watson, Yvonne; Jayson, Gordon C; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A; Cheung, Susan; Buckley, David L; McGrath, Deirdre M; et al. (2009-11-15)
      PURPOSE: There is considerable interest in developing non-invasive methods of mapping tumor hypoxia. Changes in tissue oxygen concentration produce proportional changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation rate (R(1)). This technique has been used previously to evaluate oxygen delivery to healthy tissues and is distinct from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. Here we report application of this method to detect alteration in tumor oxygenation status. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten patients with advanced cancer of the abdomen and pelvis underwent serial measurement of tumor R(1) while breathing medical air (21% oxygen) followed by 100% oxygen (oxygen-enhanced MRI). Gadolinium-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was then performed to compare the spatial distribution of perfusion with that of oxygen-induced DeltaR(1). RESULTS: DeltaR(1) showed significant increases of 0.021 to 0.058 s(-1) in eight patients with either locally recurrent tumor from cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas or metastases from ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. In general, there was congruency between perfusion and oxygen concentration. However, regional mismatch was observed in some tumor cores. Here, moderate gadolinium uptake (consistent with moderate perfusion) was associated with low area under the DeltaR(1) curve (consistent with minimal increase in oxygen concentration). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence that oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation can monitor changes in tumor oxygen concentration. The technique shows promise in identifying hypoxic regions within tumors and may enable spatial mapping of change in tumor oxygen concentration.