Browsing Medical Oncology by Subjects
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Ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma: an intriguing model for antigen-driven lymphomagenesis and microbial-targeted therapy.Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas constitute one half of malignancies arising in the orbit and the ocular adnexae. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma is the most common histological category in this anatomic region. The incidence of ocular adnexal lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type (OAML) is increasing and recent studies offered new relevant insights in molecular, pathogenetic and therapeutic issues on these neoplasms. A pathogenetic model of antigen-driven lymphoproliferation similar to that reported for Helicobacter pylori-related gastric MALT lymphomas has been hypothesized for OAML. This notion is supported by the association between OAML and Chlamydophila psittaci infection, an association that is of likely pathogenetic relevance and may influence both the biological behavior and the therapeutic management of these neoplasms. However, this association displays evident geographical variability indicating that other etiopathogenic agents could be involved. These recent acquisitions coupled with the occurrence of chromosomal translocations and other genetic alterations, as well as additional risk factors like autoimmune disorders have contributed to render OAML an exciting challenge for a broad group of physicians and scientists. OAML is an indolent and rarely lethal malignancy that, in selected patients, can be managed with observation alone. Lymphomatous lesions are frequently responsible for symptoms affecting patient's quality of life, requiring, therefore, immediate treatment. Several therapeutic strategies are available, often associated with relevant side-effects. However, the therapeutic choice in OAML is not supported by consolidated evidence due to the lack of prospective trials. In this review, we analyze the most relevant biological, molecular, pathological and clinical features of OAML and propose some therapeutic guidelines for patients affected by this malignancy.
A prospective clinicopathologic study of dose-modified CODOX-M/IVAC in patients with sporadic Burkitt lymphoma defined using cytogenetic and immunophenotypic criteria (MRC/NCRI LY10 trial).This prospective study aimed to develop reproducible diagnostic criteria for sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL), applicable to routine practice, and to evaluate the efficacy of dose-modified (dm) CODOX-M/IVAC in patients diagnosed using these criteria. The study was open to patients with an aggressive B-cell lymphoma with an MKI67 fraction approaching 100%. Immunophenotype and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to separate BL from other aggressive B-cell lymphomas. BL was characterized by the presence of a cMYC rearrangement as a sole cytogenetic abnormality occurring in patients with a germinal center phenotype with absence of BCL-2 expression and abnormal TP53 expression. A total of 128 patients were eligible for the study, of whom 58 were considered to have BL and 70 to have diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). There were 110 clinically fit patients who received dmCODOX-M (methotrexate, dose 3 g/m(2)) with or without IVAC according to risk group. The 2-year progression-free survival was 64% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51%-77%) for BL, 55% (95% CI 42%-66%) for DLBCL, 85% (95% CI 73%-97%) for low risk, and 49% (95% CI 38%-60%) for high-risk patients. The observed differences in outcome and other clinical features validate the proposed diagnostic criteria. Compared with the previous trial LY06 with full-dose methotrexate (6.7 g/m(2)), there was a reduction in toxicity with comparable outcomes. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00040690.