• Abarelix and other gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists in prostate cancer.

      Kirby, Roger S; Fitzpatrick, John M; Clarke, Noel W; The Prostate Centre, London, UK. (2009-12)
      Hormonal therapy is the main recommended treatment for locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists, such as buserelin, goserelin, leuprorelin and triptorelin, stimulate the pituitary's gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor, ultimately leading to its de-sensitization and subsequent reduction of LH and testosterone levels. However, this reduction is accompanied by a well described increase or 'surge' in LH and testosterone levels, necessitating the concomitant administration of an antiandrogen to combat the potential effects of transient acceleration in cancer activity. Two pure GnRH antagonists have been developed, abarelix and degarelix, that are devoid of any agonist effect on the GnRH receptor and consequently do not result in testosterone flare. Abarelix was the first GnRH antagonist to be developed and was approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration in 2004 for the initiation of hormonal castration in advanced or metastasizing hormone-dependent prostate carcinoma, when rapid androgen suppression is necessary. Clinical data on both abarelix and degarelix show that they can produce rapid and sustained decreases in testosterone to castrate levels without the need for co-administration of an antiandrogen, and with a very low complication rate in the short term.
    • Effect of body mass index on recurrences in tamoxifen and anastrozole treated women: an exploratory analysis from the ATAC trial.

      Sestak, Ivana; Distler, Wolfgang; Forbes, John F; Dowsett, Mitch; Howell, Anthony; Cuzick, Jack; Cancer Research UK UK, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom. i.sestak@qmul.ac.uk (2010-07-20)
      PURPOSE: Third-generation aromatase inhibitors have been widely used in postmenopausal women for the adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. As aromatase inhibitors work by inhibiting the conversion of androgens to estrogens in adipose tissue, we hypothesized that anastrozole may be more effective in women with a high body mass index (BMI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination (ATAC) study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial in which postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive oral daily anastrozole (1 mg) alone, tamoxifen (20 mg) alone, or the combination in a double-blind fashion. Analyses were based on the 100-month median follow-up for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers (estrogen [ER] and/or progesterone [PgR] positive). Here, we investigate the impact of BMI on recurrence and the relative benefit of anastrozole versus tamoxifen according to baseline BMI. Results Overall, women with a high BMI (BMI > 35 kg/m(2)) at baseline had more recurrences than those women with a low BMI (BMI < 23 kg/m(2); adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.82; P(heterogeneity) = .03) and significantly more distant recurrences (adjusted HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.61; P(heterogeneity) = .01). Overall, the relative benefit of anastrozole versus tamoxifen was nonsignificantly better in thin women compared to overweight women. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the poorer prognosis of obese women with early-stage breast cancer. Recurrence rates were lower for anastrozole than tamoxifen for all BMI quintiles. Our results suggest that the relative efficacy of anastrozole compared to tamoxifen is greater in thin postmenopausal women and higher doses or more complete inhibitors might be more effective in overweight women, but this requires independent confirmation.