The Inositide Laboratory joined the Institute in Autumn 2007
A casein kinase 1 and PAR proteins regulate asymmetry of a PIP(2) synthesis enzyme for asymmetric spindle positioning.Spindle positioning is an essential feature of asymmetric cell division. The conserved PAR proteins together with heterotrimeric G proteins control spindle positioning in animal cells, but how these are linked is not known. In C. elegans, PAR protein activity leads to asymmetric spindle placement through cortical asymmetry of Galpha regulators GPR-1/2. Here, we establish that the casein kinase 1 gamma CSNK-1 and a PIP(2) synthesis enzyme (PPK-1) transduce PAR polarity to asymmetric Galpha regulation. PPK-1 is posteriorly enriched in the one-celled embryo through PAR and CSNK-1 activities. Loss of CSNK-1 causes uniformly high PPK-1 levels, high symmetric cortical levels of GPR-1/2 and LIN-5, and increased spindle pulling forces. In contrast, knockdown of ppk-1 leads to low GPR-1/2 levels and decreased spindle forces. Furthermore, loss of CSNK-1 leads to increased levels of PIP(2). We propose that asymmetric generation of PIP(2) by PPK-1 directs the posterior enrichment of GPR-1/2 and LIN-5, leading to posterior spindle displacement.
Relevance of the capacity of phosphorylated fructose to scavenge the hydroxyl radical.The hydroxyl radical (*OH) has detrimental biological activity due to its very high reactivity. Our experiments were designed to determine the effects of equimolar concentrations of glucose, fructose and mannitol and three phosphorylated forms of fructose (fructose-1-phosphate (F1P); fructose-6-phosphate (F6P); and fructose-1,6-bis(phosphate) (F16BP)) on *OH radical production via the Fenton reaction. EPR spectroscopy using spin-trap DEPMPO was applied to detect radical production. We found that the percentage inhibition of *OH radical formation decreased in the order F16BP>F1P>F6P>fructose>mannitol=glucose. As ketoses can sequester redox-active iron thus preventing the Fenton reaction, the Haber-Weiss-like system was also employed to generate *OH, so that the effect of iron sequestration could be distinguished from direct *OH radical scavenging. In the latter system, the rank order of *OH scavenging activity was F16BP>F1P>F6P>fructose=mannitol=glucose. Our results clearly demonstrate that intracellular phosphorylated forms of fructose have more scavenging properties than fructose or glucose, leading us to conclude that the acute administration of fructose could overcome the body's reaction to exogenous antioxidants during appropriate therapy in certain pathophysiological conditions related to oxidative stress, such as sepsis, neurodegenerative diseases, atherosclerosis, malignancy, and some complications of pregnancy.