AuthorsHendry, Jolyon H
AffiliationChristie Medical Physics and Engineering, Christie Hospital, Manchester M20 4BX, UK
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractTissue reactions (deterministic effects) become manifest either early or late after doses above a threshold dose, which is the basis for recommended dose limits for avoiding such effects. Threshold doses have been defined for comparative purposes at 1% incidence of an effect, although the choice of incidence level may be scenario-dependent in practice. Latency time before manifestation is related to cell turnover rates and tissue complexity. In general, threshold doses become lower for longer follow-up times because of the slow progression of injury before manifestation, particularly after lower doses. Radiosensitive individuals may contribute to low threshold doses, which would provide a safety margin for the majority of a population. A threshold dose of 0.5 Gy was proposed for radiation-induced circulatory disease, after acute or chronic exposures, in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 118. However, more recent meta-analyses of low-dose population studies suggest that, if a linear dose-incidence is assumed, the risk of some types of circulatory disease after doses <0.5 Gy or <10 mGy day(-1) may be positive and similar to that for induced cancer. Animal studies show that doses >2 Gy induce the expression of inflammatory and thrombotic molecules in endothelial cells. This causes progressive loss of capillaries in the heart and leads to reduced perfusion, myocardial cell death, and fibrosis. However, doses <1 Gy inhibit both inflammatory cell adhesion to endothelial cells and the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Different mechanisms of injury at low and high doses preclude the simple extrapolation of risk on a linear-quadratic basis from acute to chronic exposures.
CitationThreshold doses and circulatory disease risks. 2015: Ann ICRP
JournalAnnals of the ICRP
- Radiation biology and radiation protection.
- Authors: Hendry JH
- Issue date: 2012 Oct-Dec
- ICRP publication 118: ICRP statement on tissue reactions and early and late effects of radiation in normal tissues and organs--threshold doses for tissue reactions in a radiation protection context.
- Authors: Authors on behalf of ICRP., Stewart FA, Akleyev AV, Hauer-Jensen M, Hendry JH, Kleiman NJ, Macvittie TJ, Aleman BM, Edgar AB, Mabuchi K, Muirhead CR, Shore RE, Wallace WH
- Issue date: 2012 Feb
- Mechanisms and dose-response relationships for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease.
- Authors: Stewart FA
- Issue date: 2012 Oct-Dec
- Classification of radiation effects for dose limitation purposes: history, current situation and future prospects.
- Authors: Hamada N, Fujimichi Y
- Issue date: 2014 Jul
- Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulatory disease from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation and estimates of potential population mortality risks.
- Authors: Little MP, Azizova TV, Bazyka D, Bouffler SD, Cardis E, Chekin S, Chumak VV, Cucinotta FA, de Vathaire F, Hall P, Harrison JD, Hildebrandt G, Ivanov V, Kashcheev VV, Klymenko SV, Kreuzer M, Laurent O, Ozasa K, Schneider T, Tapio S, Taylor AM, Tzoulaki I, Vandoolaeghe WL, Wakeford R, Zablotska LB, Zhang W, Lipshultz SE
- Issue date: 2012 Nov