• Contributions of embryonic hsc-independent hematopoiesis to organogenesis and the adult hematopoietic system

      Neo, W H; Lie-A-Ling, Michael; Fadlullah, Muhammad Z H; Lacaud, Georges; Stem Cell Biology Group, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester, Macclesfield (2021)
      During ontogeny, the establishment of the hematopoietic system takes place in several phases, separated both in time and location. The process is initiated extra-embryonically in the yolk sac (YS) and concludes in the main arteries of the embryo with the formation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Initially, it was thought that HSC-independent hematopoietic YS cells were transient, and only required to bridge the gap to HSC activity. However, in recent years it has become clear that these cells also contribute to embryonic organogenesis, including the emergence of HSCs. Furthermore, some of these early HSC-independent YS cells persist into adulthood as distinct hematopoietic populations. These previously unrecognized abilities of embryonic HSC-independent hematopoietic cells constitute a new field of interest. Here, we aim to provide a succinct overview of the current knowledge regarding the contribution of YS-derived hematopoietic cells to the development of the embryo and the adult hematopoietic system.
    • Metabolomic biomarkers for the detection of obesity-driven endometrial cancer

      Njoku, K.; Campbell, A. E.; Geary, B.; MacKintosh, M. L.; Derbyshire, A. E.; Kitson, S. J.; Sivalingam, V. N.; Pierce, Andrew; Whetton, Anthony D; Crosbie, E. J.; et al. (2021)
      Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women. Early detection is key to ensuring good outcomes but a lack of minimally invasive screening tools is a significant barrier. Most endometrial cancers are obesity-driven and develop in the context of severe metabolomic dysfunction. Blood-derived metabolites may therefore provide clinically relevant biomarkers for endometrial cancer detection. In this study, we analysed plasma samples of women with body mass index (BMI) ≥30kg/m2 and endometrioid endometrial cancer (cases, n = 67) or histologically normal endometrium (controls, n = 69), using a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach. Eighty percent of the samples were randomly selected to serve as a training set and the remaining 20% were used to qualify test performance. Robust predictive models (AUC > 0.9) for endometrial cancer detection based on artificial intelligence algorithms were developed and validated. Phospholipids were of significance as biomarkers of endometrial cancer, with sphingolipids (sphingomyelins) discriminatory in post-menopausal women. An algorithm combining the top ten performing metabolites showed 92.6% prediction accuracy (AUC of 0.95) for endometrial cancer detection. These results suggest that a simple blood test could enable the early detection of endometrial cancer and provide the basis for a minimally invasive screening tool for women with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2.
    • Embryonic environmental niche reprograms somatic cells to express pluripotency markers and participate in adult chimaeras

      Żyżyńska-Galeńska, K.; Bernat, A.; Piliszek, A.; Karasiewicz, J.; Szablisty, E.; Sacharczuk, M.; Brewińska-Olchowik, M.; Bochenek, M.; Grabarek, Joanna; Modliński, J. A.; et al. (2021)
      The phenomenon of the reprogramming of terminally differentiated cells can be achieved by various means, like somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion with a pluripotent cell, or the introduction of pluripotency genes. Here, we present the evidence that somatic cells can attain the expression of pluripotency markers after their introduction into early embryos. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts introduced between blastomeres of cleaving embryos, within two days of in vitro culture, express transcription factors specific to blastocyst lineages, including pluripotency factors. Analysis of donor tissue marker DNA has revealed that the progeny of introduced cells are found in somatic tissues of foetuses and adult chimaeras, providing evidence for cell reprogramming. Analysis of ploidy has shown that in the chimaeras, the progeny of introduced cells are either diploid or tetraploid, the latter indicating cell fusion. The presence of donor DNA in diploid cells from chimaeric embryos proved that the non-fused progeny of introduced fibroblasts persisted in chimaeras, which is evidence of reprogramming by embryonic niche. When adult somatic (cumulus) cells were introduced into early cleavage embryos, the extent of integration was limited and only cell fusion-mediated reprogramming was observed. These results show that both cell fusion and cell interactions with the embryonic niche reprogrammed somatic cells towards pluripotency.
    • Adolescents and young adults living with an uncertain or poor cancer prognosis: the 'new' lost tribe

      Burgers, V. W. G.; van der Graaf, W. T. A.; van der Meer, D. J.; McCabe, Martin G; Rijneveld, A. W.; van den Bent, M. J.; Husson, O.; Department of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute. Department of Medical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam (2021)
      Historically, adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer, diagnosed for the first time at age 15 through 39 years, have often been identified as a "lost tribe" without a medical "home"; neither pediatric nor adult oncology services were able to provide age-appropriate care to this specific group. Internationally, AYA care programs are being established to bridge the gap between the age-defined healthcare worlds and to address the specific needs of AYAs with cancer. However, AYA care programs mostly focus on improving cure rates and addressing survivorship issues, and direct less attention to the unique needs of those living with an uncertain and/or poor cancer prognosis. Additionally, palliative care services are typically poorly equipped to address the age-specific needs of this group. Given that increasingly more AYAs with an uncertain and/or poor cancer prognosis are gaining life years because of novel treatments, and sometimes even face the prospect of long-term disease control, AYA care programs should address the unique palliative care needs of this "new" lost tribe within AYA oncology. This report provides a definition and description of the AYA population living with an uncertain and/or poor cancer prognosis in terms of epidemiologic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics and challenges, and provides perspectives for future research and care initiatives. It also highlights the need to comprehensively examine the experience of AYAs who are living with uncertain and/or poor cancer prognosis to adjust best care practices for this unique group
    • Burkitt Lymphoma International Prognostic Index

      Olszewski, A. J.; Jakobsen, L. H.; Collins, G. P.; Cwynarski, K.; Bachanova, V.; Blum, K. A.; Boughan, K. M.; Bower, M.; Dalla Pria, A.; Danilov, A.; et al. (2021)
      Purpose: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) has unique biology and clinical course but lacks a standardized prognostic model. We developed and validated a novel prognostic index specific for BL to aid risk stratification, interpretation of clinical trials, and targeted development of novel treatment approaches. Methods: We derived the BL International Prognostic Index (BL-IPI) from a real-world data set of adult patients with BL treated with immunochemotherapy in the United States between 2009 and 2018, identifying candidate variables that showed the strongest prognostic association with progression-free survival (PFS). The index was validated in an external data set of patients treated in Europe, Canada, and Australia between 2004 and 2019. Results: In the derivation cohort of 633 patients with BL, age ≥ 40 years, performance status ≥ 2, serum lactate dehydrogenase > 3× upper limit of normal, and CNS involvement were selected as equally weighted factors with an independent prognostic value. The resulting BL-IPI identified groups with low (zero risk factors, 18% of patients), intermediate (one factor, 36% of patients), and high risk (≥ 2 factors, 46% of patients) with 3-year PFS estimates of 92%, 72%, and 53%, respectively, and 3-year overall survival estimates of 96%, 76%, and 59%, respectively. The index discriminated outcomes regardless of HIV status, stage, or first-line chemotherapy regimen. Patient characteristics, relative size of the BL-IPI groupings, and outcome discrimination were consistent in the validation cohort of 457 patients, with 3-year PFS estimates of 96%, 82%, and 63% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk BL-IPI, respectively. Conclusion: The BL-IPI provides robust discrimination of survival in adult BL, suitable for use as prognostication and stratification in trials. The high-risk group has suboptimal outcomes with standard therapy and should be considered for innovative treatment approaches.
    • Progress towards non-small-cell lung cancer models that represent clinical evolutionary trajectories

      Hynds, R. E.; Frese, Kristopher K; Pearce, D. R.; Grönroos, E.; Dive, Caroline; Swanton, C.; Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London, UK. (2021)
      Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although advances are being made towards earlier detection and the development of impactful targeted therapies and immunotherapies, the 5-year survival of patients with advanced disease is still below 20%. Effective cancer research relies on pre-clinical model systems that accurately reflect the evolutionary course of disease progression and mimic patient responses to therapy. Here, we review pre-clinical models, including genetically engineered mouse models and patient-derived materials, such as cell lines, primary cell cultures, explant cultures and xenografts, that are currently being used to interrogate NSCLC evolution from pre-invasive disease through locally invasive cancer to the metastatic colonization of distant organ sites.
    • Incorporating radiomics into clinical trials: expert consensus on considerations for data-driven compared to biologically driven quantitative biomarkers

      Fournier, L.; Costaridou, L.; Bidaut, L.; Michoux, N.; Lecouvet, F. E.; de Geus-Oei, L. F.; Boellaard, R.; Oprea-Lager, D. E.; Obuchowski, N. A.; Caroli, A.; et al. (2021)
      Existing quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) are associated with known biological tissue characteristics and follow a well-understood path of technical, biological and clinical validation before incorporation into clinical trials. In radiomics, novel data-driven processes extract numerous visually imperceptible statistical features from the imaging data with no a priori assumptions on their correlation with biological processes. The selection of relevant features (radiomic signature) and incorporation into clinical trials therefore requires additional considerations to ensure meaningful imaging endpoints. Also, the number of radiomic features tested means that power calculations would result in sample sizes impossible to achieve within clinical trials. This article examines how the process of standardising and validating data-driven imaging biomarkers differs from those based on biological associations. Radiomic signatures are best developed initially on datasets that represent diversity of acquisition protocols as well as diversity of disease and of normal findings, rather than within clinical trials with standardised and optimised protocols as this would risk the selection of radiomic features being linked to the imaging process rather than the pathology. Normalisation through discretisation and feature harmonisation are essential pre-processing steps. Biological correlation may be performed after the technical and clinical validity of a radiomic signature is established, but is not mandatory. Feature selection may be part of discovery within a radiomics-specific trial or represent exploratory endpoints within an established trial; a previously validated radiomic signature may even be used as a primary/secondary endpoint, particularly if associations are demonstrated with specific biological processes and pathways being targeted within clinical trials. KEY POINTS: • Data-driven processes like radiomics risk false discoveries due to high-dimensionality of the dataset compared to sample size, making adequate diversity of the data, cross-validation and external validation essential to mitigate the risks of spurious associations and overfitting. • Use of radiomic signatures within clinical trials requires multistep standardisation of image acquisition, image analysis and data mining processes. • Biological correlation may be established after clinical validation but is not mandatory.
    • Non-canonical functions of the ARF tumor suppressor in development and tumorigenesis

      Lagopati, N.; Belogiannis, K.; Angelopoulou, A.; Papaspyropoulos, A.; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Molecular Carcinogenesis Group, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, National Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA), 115 27 Athens, Greece. (2021)
      P14ARF (ARF; Alternative Reading Frame) is an extensively characterized tumor suppressor which, in response to oncogenic stimuli, mediates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via p53-dependent and independent routes. ARF has been shown to be frequently lost through CpG island promoter methylation in a wide spectrum of human malignancies, such as colorectal, prostate, breast, and gastric cancers, while point mutations and deletions in the p14ARF locus have been linked with various forms of melanomas and glioblastomas. Although ARF has been mostly studied in the context of tumorigenesis, it has been also implicated in purely developmental processes, such as spermatogenesis, and mammary gland and ocular development, while it has been additionally involved in the regulation of angiogenesis. Moreover, ARF has been found to hold important roles in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. As is often the case with tumor suppressors, ARF functions as a pleiotropic protein regulating a number of different mechanisms at the crossroad of development and tumorigenesis. Here, we provide an overview of the non-canonical functions of ARF in cancer and developmental biology, by dissecting the crosstalk of ARF signaling with key oncogenic and developmental pathways.
    • Antitumor effects of self-assembling peptide-emodin in situ hydrogels in vitro and in vivo

      Wei, W.; Tang, Jianhua; Li, H.; Huang, Y.; Yin, C.; Li, D.; Tang, F.; Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology of Guizhou Province and School of Pharmacy, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563000, People's Republic of China. (2021)
      Purpose: To study the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of the colloidal suspension-in situ hydrogel of emodin (EM) constructed with the self-assembling peptide RADA16-I and systematically evaluate the feasibility of the delivery system. Methods: The MTT and colony-formation assays were used to determine the viability of normal cells NCTC 1469 and tumor cells Hepa1-6. The uptake of EM in the RADA16-I-EM in situ hydrogel by tumor cells was analyzed by laser confocal microscope and flow cytometry. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. Transwell assay was used to detect the migration and invasion of tumor cells. The antitumor efficacy of the RADA16-I-EM in situ hydrogel and its toxic effects was further assessed in vivo on Hepa1-6 tumor-bearing C57 mice. Results: The results showed that the RADA16-I-EM in situ hydrogels could obviously reduce the toxicity of EM to normal cells and the survival of tumor cells. The uptake of EM by the cells from the hydrogels was obviously increased and could significantly induce apoptosis and arrest cell cycle in the G2/M phase, and reduce the migration, invasion and clone-formation ability of the cells. The RADA16-I-EM in situ hydrogel could also effectively inhibit the tumor growth and obviously decrease the toxic effects of EM on normal tissues in vivo. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that RADA16-I has the potential to be a carrier for the hydrophobic drug EM and can effectively improve the delivery of hydrophobic antitumor drugs with enhanced antitumor effects and reduced toxic effects of the drugs on normal cells and tissues.
    • Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from trypanosomes: selectivity for steroids and chemical validation in bloodstream trypanosoma brucei

      Ortíz, C.; Moraca, F.; Laverriere, M.; Jordan, Allan M; Hamilton, Niall M; Comini, M. A.; Redox Biology of Trypanosomes, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Mataojo 2020, Montevideo 11400, Uruguay. (2021)
      Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) fulfills an essential role in cell physiology by catalyzing the production of NADPH+ and of a precursor for the de novo synthesis of ribose 5-phosphate. In trypanosomatids, G6PDH is essential for in vitro proliferation, antioxidant defense and, thereby, drug resistance mechanisms. So far, 16α-brominated epiandrosterone represents the most potent hit targeting trypanosomal G6PDH. Here, we extended the investigations on this important drug target and its inhibition by using a small subset of androstane derivatives. In Trypanosoma cruzi, immunofluorescence revealed a cytoplasmic distribution of G6PDH and the absence of signal in major organelles. Cytochemical assays confirmed parasitic G6PDH as the molecular target of epiandrosterone. Structure-activity analysis for a set of new (dehydro)epiandrosterone derivatives revealed that bromination at position 16α of the cyclopentane moiety yielded more potent T. cruzi G6PDH inhibitors than the corresponding β-substituted analogues. For the 16α brominated compounds, the inclusion of an acetoxy group at position 3 either proved detrimental or enhanced the activity of the epiandrosterone or the dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives, respectively. Most derivatives presented single digit μM EC50 against infective T. brucei and the killing mechanism involved an early thiol-redox unbalance. This data suggests that infective African trypanosomes lack efficient NADPH+-synthesizing pathways, beyond the Pentose Phosphate, to maintain thiol-redox homeostasis.
    • Statins reduce disease recurrence in patients with ulcerated primary melanoma

      von Schuckmann, L. A.; Khosrotehrani, K.; Ghiasvand, R.; Hughes, M. C. B.; van der Pols, J. C.; Malt, M.; Smithers, M.; Green, Adèle C; Department of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, Australia (2021)
      Background: Statins may restrict cellular functions required for melanoma growth and metastasis. We examined whether long‐term statin use commenced before diagnosis of the primary is associated with reduced risk of melanoma recurrence. Patients and methods: We prospectively followed a cohort of patients newly diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 with localised tumour‐stage T1b to T4b melanoma in Queensland, Australia. We used Cox‐regression analyses to examine associations between long‐term statin use and melanoma recurrence for the entire cohort, and then separately by sex and by presence of ulceration due to evidence of effect modification. Results: Amongst 700 patients diagnosed with stage T1b to T4b primary melanoma (mean age 62, 59% male, 28% with ulcerated tumors), 94 patients (13%) developed melanoma recurrence within 2 years. Long‐term statin users (n = 204, 29%) had a significantly lower risk of disease recurrence compared to non‐users (Adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj) 0.55, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.32–0.97) regardless of statin subtype or potency. Compared to non‐statin users, risk of recurrence was significantly decreased in male statin‐users (HRadj 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19–0.79) but not female statin users (HRadj 0.82, 95% CI: 0.29–2.27) and in statin‐users with ulcerated (HRadj 0.17, 95% CI: 0.05–0.52) but not non‐ulcerated (HRadj 0.91, 95% CI: 0.46–1.81) primary melanoma. Conclusion: Statins commenced before melanoma diagnosis, may reduce the risk of melanoma recurrence, especially in males and those with ulcerated tumors. Clinical trial evaluation of the potential role of statins in improving the prognosis of high‐risk melanoma is warranted.
    • Assessing drug development risk using big data and machine learning

      Vergetis, V.; Skaltsas, D.; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Tsirigos, A.; Intelligencia Inc., New York, New York. (2021)
      Identifying new drug targets and developing safe and effective drugs is both challenging and risky. Furthermore, characterizing drug development risk, the probability that a drug will eventually receive regulatory approval, has been notoriously hard given the complexities of drug biology and clinical trials. This inherent risk is often misunderstood and mischaracterized, leading to inefficient allocation of resources and, as a result, an overall reduction in R&D productivity. Here we argue that the recent resurgence of Machine Learning in combination with the availability of data can provide a more accurate and unbiased estimate of drug development risk.
    • E2 enzymes in genome stability: pulling the strings behind the scenes

      Osborne, Hugh C; Irving, E.; Forment, J. V.; Schmidt, Christine K; Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Division of Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine, and Health, University of Manchester, 555 Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4GJ (2021)
      Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) function as critical post-translational modifiers in the maintenance of genome stability. Ubiquitin/UBL-conjugating enzymes (E2s) are responsible, as part of a wider enzymatic cascade, for transferring single moieties or polychains of ubiquitin/UBLs to one or multiple residues on substrate proteins. Recent advances in structural and mechanistic understanding of how ubiquitin/UBL substrate attachment is orchestrated indicate that E2s can exert control over chain topology, substrate-site specificity, and downstream physiological effects to help maintain genome stability. Drug discovery efforts have typically focussed on modulating other members of the ubiquitin/UBL cascades or the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here, we review the current standing of E2s in genome stability and revisit their potential as pharmacological targets for developing novel anti-cancer therapies.
    • Implication of dietary iron-chelating bioactive compounds in molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced cell ageing

      Barbouti, A.; Lagopati, N.; Veroutis, D.; Goulas, V.; Evangelou, K.; Kanavaros, P.; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Galaris, D.; Department of Anatomy-Histology-Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece (2021)
      One of the prevailing perceptions regarding the ageing of cells and organisms is the intracellular gradual accumulation of oxidatively damaged macromolecules, leading to the decline of cell and organ function (free radical theory of ageing). This chemically undefined material known as "lipofuscin," "ceroid," or "age pigment" is mainly formed through unregulated and nonspecific oxidative modifications of cellular macromolecules that are induced by highly reactive free radicals. A necessary precondition for reactive free radical generation and lipofuscin formation is the intracellular availability of ferrous iron (Fe2+) ("labile iron"), catalyzing the conversion of weak oxidants such as peroxides, to extremely reactive ones like hydroxyl (HO•) or alcoxyl (RO•) radicals. If the oxidized materials remain unrepaired for extended periods of time, they can be further oxidized to generate ultimate over-oxidized products that are unable to be repaired, degraded, or exocytosed by the relevant cellular systems. Additionally, over-oxidized materials might inactivate cellular protection and repair mechanisms, thus allowing for futile cycles of increasingly rapid lipofuscin accumulation. In this review paper, we present evidence that the modulation of the labile iron pool distribution by nutritional or pharmacological means represents a hitherto unappreciated target for hampering lipofuscin accumulation and cellular ageing.
    • A unified haplotype-based method for accurate and comprehensive variant calling

      Cooke, D. P.; Wedge, David C; Lunter, G.; MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (2021)
      Almost all haplotype-based variant callers were designed specifically for detecting common germline variation in diploid populations, and give suboptimal results in other scenarios. Here we present Octopus, a variant caller that uses a polymorphic Bayesian genotyping model capable of modeling sequencing data from a range of experimental designs within a unified haplotype-aware framework. Octopus combines sequencing reads and prior information to phase-called genotypes of arbitrary ploidy, including those with somatic mutations. We show that Octopus accurately calls germline variants in individuals, including single nucleotide variants, indels and small complex replacements such as microinversions. Using a synthetic tumor data set derived from clean sequencing data from a sample with known germline haplotypes and observed mutations in a large cohort of tumor samples, we show that Octopus is more sensitive to low-frequency somatic variation, yet calls considerably fewer false positives than other methods. Octopus also outputs realigned evidence BAM files to aid validation and interpretation.
    • Breast cancer management pathways during the COVID-19 pandemic: outcomes from the UK 'Alert Level 4' phase of the B-MaP-C study

      Dave, R. V.; Kim, B.; Courtney, A.; O'Connell, R.; Rattay, T.; Taxiarchi, V. P.; Kirkham, J. J.; Camacho, E. M.; Fairbrother, P.; Sharma, N.; et al. (2021)
      Background: The B-MaP-C study aimed to determine alterations to breast cancer (BC) management during the peak transmission period of the UK COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of these treatment decisions. Methods: This was a national cohort study of patients with early BC undergoing multidisciplinary team (MDT)-guided treatment recommendations during the pandemic, designated 'standard' or 'COVID-altered', in the preoperative, operative and post-operative setting. Findings: Of 3776 patients (from 64 UK units) in the study, 2246 (59%) had 'COVID-altered' management. 'Bridging' endocrine therapy was used (n = 951) where theatre capacity was reduced. There was increasing access to COVID-19 low-risk theatres during the study period (59%). In line with national guidance, immediate breast reconstruction was avoided (n = 299). Where adjuvant chemotherapy was omitted (n = 81), the median benefit was only 3% (IQR 2-9%) using 'NHS Predict'. There was the rapid adoption of new evidence-based hypofractionated radiotherapy (n = 781, from 46 units). Only 14 patients (1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during their treatment journey. Conclusions: The majority of 'COVID-altered' management decisions were largely in line with pre-COVID evidence-based guidelines, implying that breast cancer survival outcomes are unlikely to be negatively impacted by the pandemic. However, in this study, the potential impact of delays to BC presentation or diagnosis remains unknown.
    • Predicting outcomes in men with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT): results from the IGCCCG update consortium

      Gillessen, Silke; Sauvé, N.; Collette, L.; Daugaard, G.; de Wit, R.; Albany, C.; Tryakin, A.; Fizazi, K.; Stahl, O.; Gietema, J. A.; et al. (2021)
      Purpose: The classification of the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) plays a pivotal role in the management of metastatic germ cell tumors but relies on data of patients treated between 1975 and 1990. Materials and methods: Data on 9,728 men with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors treated with cisplatin- and etoposide-based first-line chemotherapy between 1990 and 2013 were collected from 30 institutions or collaborative groups in Europe, North America, and Australia. Clinical trial and registry data were included. Primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The survival estimates were updated for the current era. Additionally, a novel prognostic model for PFS was developed in 3,543 patients with complete information on potentially relevant variables. The results were validated in an independent data set. Results: Compared with the original IGCCCG publication, 5-year PFS remained similar in patients with good prognosis with 89% (87%-91%) versus 90% (95% CI, 89 to 91), but the 5-year OS increased from 92% (90%-94%) to 96% (95%-96%). In patients with intermediate prognosis, PFS remained similar with 75% (71%-79%) versus 78% (76%-80%) and the OS increased from 80% (76%-84%) to 89% (88%-91%). In patients with poor prognosis, the PFS increased from 41% (95% CI, 35 to 47) to 54% (95% CI, 52 to 56) and the OS from 48% (95% CI, 42 to 54) to 67% (95% CI, 65 to 69). A more granular prognostic model was developed and independently validated. This model identified a new cutoff of lactate dehydrogenase at a 2.5 upper limit of normal and increasing age and presence of lung metastases as additional adverse prognostic factors. An online calculator is provided (https://www.eortc.org/IGCCCG-Update). Conclusion: The IGCCCG Update model improves individual prognostication in metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Increasing age and lung metastases add granularity to the original IGCCCG classification as adverse prognostic factors.
    • Research evaluation alongside clinical treatment in COVID-19 (REACT COVID-19): an observational and biobanking study

      Burke, H.; Freeman, A.; Dushianthan, A.; Celinski, M.; Batchelor, J.; Phan, H.; Borca, F.; Kipps, C.; Thomas, G. J.; Faust, S. N.; et al. (2021)
      Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 places immense worldwide demand on healthcare services. Earlier identification of patients at risk of severe disease may allow intervention with experimental targeted treatments, mitigating the course of their disease and reducing critical care service demand. Methods and analysis: This prospective observational study of patients tested or treated for SARS-CoV-2, who are under the care of the tertiary University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust (UHSFT), captured data from admission to discharge; data collection commenced on 7 March 2020. Core demographic and clinical information, as well as results of disease-defining characteristics, was captured and recorded electronically from hospital clinical record systems at the point of testing. Manual data were collected and recorded by the clinical research team for assessments which are not part of the structured electronic healthcare record, for example, symptom onset date. Thereafter, participant records were continuously updated during hospital stay and their follow-up period. Participants aged >16 years were given the opportunity to provide consent for excess clinical sample storage with optional further biological sampling. These anonymised samples were linked to the clinical data in the Real-time Analytics for Clinical Trials platform and were stored within a biorepository at UHSFT. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval was obtained from the HRA Specific Review Board (REC 20/HRA/2986) for waiver of informed consent for the database-only cohort; the procedures conform with the Declaration of Helsinki. The study design, protocol and patient-facing documentation for the biobanking arm of the study have been approved by North West Research Ethics Committee (REC 17/NW/0632) as an amendment to the National Institute for Health Research Southampton Clinical Research Facility-managed Southampton Research Biorepository. This study will be published as peer-reviewed articles and presented at conferences, presentations and workshops.
    • Correction to: Incorporating radiomics into clinical trials: expert consensus endorsed by the European Society of Radiology on considerations for data-driven compared to biologically driven quantitative biomarkers

      Fournier, L.; Costaridou, L.; Bidaut, L.; Michoux, N.; Lecouvet, F. E.; de Geus-Oei, L. F.; Boellaard, R.; Oprea-Lager, D. E.; Obuchowski, N. A.; Caroli, A.; et al. (2021)
    • Promises and challenges of adoptive T-cell therapies for solid tumours

      Morotti, M.; Albukhari, A.; Alsaadi, A.; Artibani, M.; Brenton, J. D.; Curbishley, S. M.; Dong, T.; Dustin, M. L.; Hu, Z.; McGranahan, N.; et al. (2021)
      Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and, despite new targeted therapies and immunotherapies, many patients with advanced-stage- or high-risk cancers still die, owing to metastatic disease. Adoptive T-cell therapy, involving the autologous or allogeneic transplant of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes or genetically modified T cells expressing novel T-cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors, has shown promise in the treatment of cancer patients, leading to durable responses and, in some cases, cure. Technological advances in genomics, computational biology, immunology and cell manufacturing have brought the aspiration of individualised therapies for cancer patients closer to reality. This new era of cell-based individualised therapeutics challenges the traditional standards of therapeutic interventions and provides opportunities for a paradigm shift in our approach to cancer therapy. Invited speakers at a 2020 symposium discussed three areas-cancer genomics, cancer immunology and cell-therapy manufacturing-that are essential to the effective translation of T-cell therapies in the treatment of solid malignancies. Key advances have been made in understanding genetic intratumour heterogeneity, and strategies to accurately identify neoantigens, overcome T-cell exhaustion and circumvent tumour immunosuppression after cell-therapy infusion are being developed. Advances are being made in cell-manufacturing approaches that have the potential to establish cell-therapies as credible therapeutic options. T-cell therapies face many challenges but hold great promise for improving clinical outcomes for patients with solid tumours.