• Early response gene expression in Ras oncoprotein signalling.

      Travers, H; Atherton, Graham T; Deed, R W; Norton, John D; CRC Department of Gene Regulation, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester. (1996-02)
    • Early response gene signalling cascades activated by ionising radiation in primary human B cells.

      Wilson, R E; Taylor, S L; Atherton, Graham T; Johnston, D; Waters, C M; Norton, John D; CRC Department of Carcinogenesis, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK. (1993-12)
      We have used a panel of 13 protein kinase C-responsive immediate early gene probes to dissect the cellular signalling pathways activated by ionising gamma radiation in primary human B cells. Of these 13 genes, a delayed transient induction was observed for only 8: c-fos, c-jun, jun-B, jun-D, c-myc, ergI/krox 24 and two 'anonymous' genes, 3L3 and 19A. Expression of c-myc and c-fos mRNAs was paralleled by the appearance of their encoded proteins suggesting that these oncoproteins may couple radiation signalling to cellular responses. Of three protein kinase C-coupled transcription factors examined by gel retardation assay, (AP1, NF kappa B, EgrK/Krox24) only NF kappa B and, to a lesser extent, AP1 was stimulated in response to irradiation. These observations are not obviously compatible with a simple model invoking protein kinase C in radiation signalling in primary B cells and suggest that the pleiotropic effects of ionising radiation on this cell type are mediated through a distinct cellular signalling cascade.
    • Early response gene signalling in bryostatin-stimulated primary B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells in vitro.

      Ning, Z Q; Hirose, Tohru; Deed, Richard W; Newton, J; Murphy, J J; Norton, John D; Division of Life Sciences, King's College London, U.K. (1996-10-01)
      The protein kinase C activator bryostatin induces differentiation and antagonizes the effects of tumour-promoting phorbol esters in a number of different cell types. We show here that bryostatin preferentially inhibits phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced proliferation compared with differentiation in a number of different B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (BCLL) cell populations examined. By using a panel of 11 early-response gene probes in Northern hybridization analysis, we found that the profile of genes induced in response to bryostatin and PMA was qualitatively similar and displayed comparable sensitivities to inhibition with the serine-threonine kinase inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine hydrochloride (H7), consistent with common signalling through protein kinase C. However, the nuclear oncogene. c-myc, which was induced strongly in response to PMA treatment, was only marginally up-regulated by bryostatin. In addition, bryostatin selectively inhibited the magnitude of PMA-responsive induction of c-myc, to a degree commensurate with its antagonistic effects seen at the biological level. Finally, an anti-sense oligonucleotide blockade of c-myc inhibited PMA-induced proliferation but not the differentiation of BCLL cells, implicating this nuclear oncogene as an important determinant distinguishing PMA from bryostatin-coupled biological responses and also as a candidate third-messenger effector target for the anti-tumour effects of bryostatin.
    • Early stage NSCLC - challenges to implementing ctDNA-based screening and MRD detection.

      Abbosh, Christopher; Birkbak, Nicolai J; Swanton, Charles; Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence London and Manchester, University College London Cancer Institute, London, UK (2018-07-03)
      Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) refers to the fraction of cell-free DNA in a patient's blood that originates from a tumour. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and our understanding of the molecular biology of tumours have resulted in increased interest in exploiting ctDNA as a tool to facilitate earlier detection of cancer and thereby improve therapeutic outcomes by enabling early intervention. ctDNA analysis might also have utility in the adjuvant therapeutic setting by enabling the identification of patients at a high risk of disease recurrence on the basis of the detection of post-surgical minimal (or molecular) residual disease (MRD). This approach could provide the capability to adapt clinical trials in the adjuvant setting in order to optimize risk stratification, and we argue that this objective is achievable with current technologies. Herein, we evaluate contemporary next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches to ctDNA detection with a focus on non-small-cell lung cancer. We explain the technical and analytical challenges to low-frequency mutation detection using NGS-based ctDNA profiling and evaluate the feasibility of ctDNA profiling in both screening and MRD assessment contexts.
    • Early steps in the free radical polymerisation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) into malanin

      Chedekel, M R; Land, Edward J; Thompson, A; Truscott, T G; Division of Environmental Chemistry, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, MD 21205, U.S.A. (1984)
    • Early studies on human chromosomes.

      Harnden, David G; Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK. (1996-02)
      The author describes his introduction to the field of cytogenetics, with his first viewing of himself, cytogenetically, down the microscope, and the progression of human cytogenetics as an area of study up to its modern integration with molecular genetics and computer technology.
    • Early-response gene signalling is induced by angiogenic oligosaccharides of hyaluronan in endothelial cells. Inhibition by non-angiogenic, high-molecular-weight hyaluronan.

      Deed, Richard W; Rooney, P; Kumar, Patricia; Norton, John D; Smith, J; Freemont, A J; Kumar, Shant; Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester, UK. (1997-04-10)
      The degradation products of hyaluronan are known to stimulate endothelial-cell proliferation and to promote neovascularization associated with angiogenesis, whilst native high-molecular-weight hyaluronan is inhibitory to these processes. To investigate the cellular signalling pathways coupled to hyaluronan-induced responses in angiogenesis, we have analyzed early-response gene expression in vitro, in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Angiogenic oligosaccharides of hyaluronan induced rapid transient up-regulation of the immediate early genes c-fos, c-jun, jun-B, Krox-20 and Krox-24. In contrast, native hyaluronan when used alone failed to elicit a significant change in expression of any of the genes tested, and when used in combination with angiogenic oligosaccharides of hyaluronan, gave a dose-dependent inhibition of induced gene expression. However, prior addition of angiogenic hyaluronan, as little as one minute before addition of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan, abrogated this inhibition, suggesting that positive or negative responses associated with hyaluronan signalling are integrated at a very early stage following receptor binding. Conversely, prior addition of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan led to an irreversible block in gene expression and proliferative response. These data are consistent with native hyaluronan antagonizing the angiogenic response in part by blocking a signalling cascade at or immediately following ligand-receptor interaction. Finally, we demonstrated that chronic exposure to oligosaccharides of hyaluronan is essential for cell proliferation, indicating that short-term immediate early-gene signalling is insufficient to elicit the proliferation of endothelial cells.
    • Ectopic expression of Bcl-2, but not Bcl-xL rescues Ramos B cells from Fas-mediated apoptosis.

      Alam, M K; Davison, S; Siddiqui, N; Norton, John D; Murphy, J J; Infection and Immunity Research Group, Division of Life Sciences, King's College London, GB. (1997-12)
      The human Burkitt lymphoma Ramos B cell line can be induced to undergo apoptosis in response to a variety of different agents, including calcium ionophores, anti-immunoglobulin (Ig) and macromolecular synthesis inhibitors. In addition, following up-regulation of the Fas (CD95) surface receptor by CD40 ligation, these cells also become susceptible to apoptosis induction by Fas ligation. We have previously shown that protection from calcium ionophore- and macromolecular synthesis inhibitor-induced apoptosis by CD40 ligation is associated with a rapid up-regulation of Bcl-xL followed by a more moderate and delayed up-regulation of Bcl-2. We show here that overexpression of Bcl-xL, like Bcl-2, protects Ramos cells from apoptosis induction in response to calcium ionophore, anti-Ig and macromolecular synthesis inhibition. However, in contrast to Bcl-2, ectopic overexpression of Bcl-xL does not rescue from Fas-mediated apoptosis. Thus, in Ramos B cells, the Fas apoptotic pathway exhibits differential sensitivity to inhibition by Bcl-2 family members. These findings also suggest that CD40 signaling provides a switch which renders the cells susceptible to Fas-ligand mediated apoptosis through up-regulation of Fas whilst affording protection from anti-Ig-induced apoptosis through up-regulation of Bcl-xL.
    • Ectopic HOXB4 overcomes the inhibitory effect of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} on Fanconi anemia hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

      Milsom, Michael D; Schiedlmeier, Bernhard; Bailey, Jeff; Kim, Mi-Ok; Li, Dandan; Jansen, Michael; Ali, Abdullah Mahmood; Kirby, Michelle; Baum, Christopher; Fairbairn, Leslie J; et al. (2009-05-21)
      Ectopic delivery of HOXB4 elicits the expansion of engrafting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We hypothesized that inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) signaling may be central to the self-renewal signature of HOXB4. Because HSCs derived from Fanconi anemia (FA) knockout mice are hypersensitive to TNF-alpha, we studied Fancc(-/-) HSCs to determine the physiologic effects of HOXB4 on TNF-alpha sensitivity and the relationship of these effects to the engraftment defect of FA HSCs. Overexpression of HOXB4 reversed the in vitro hypersensitivity to TNF-alpha of Fancc(-/-) HSCs and progenitors (P) and partially rescued the engraftment defect of these cells. Coexpression of HOXB4 and the correcting FA-C protein resulted in full correction compared with wild-type (WT) HSCs. Ectopic expression of HOXB4 resulted in a reduction in both apoptosis and reactive oxygen species in Fancc(-/-) but not WT HSC/P. HOXB4 overexpression was also associated with a significant reduction in surface expression of TNF-alpha receptors on Fancc(-/-) HSC/P. Finally, enhanced engraftment was seen even when HOXB4 was expressed in a time-limited fashion during in vivo reconstitution. Thus, the HOXB4 engraftment signature may be related to its effects on TNF-alpha signaling, and this pathway may be a molecular target for timed pharmacologic manipulation of HSC during reconstitution.
    • Ectopic implantation studies using Sl/Sld marrow and recipients.

      Schofield, Raymond; Lorimore, S A; Wright, Eric G (1987-03)
      Marrow from Sl/Sld mice (in which the hemopoietic stromal microenvironment is defective), when implanted beneath the renal capsule of a normal littermate, produces an ectopic marrow site containing the same number of stem cells (CFU-S) and nearly as many GM-CFC as that obtained by implanting marrow from a normal littermate. On the other hand, a marrow plug from an Sl/Sld donor implanted beneath the renal capsule of an Sl/Sld littermate produces less than half the number of CFU-S and about 10% of the number of GM-CFC. This suggests that the recipient of the ectopic implant can contribute in some way to the stromal environment of the grafted marrow.
    • Ectopic interleukin-5 receptor expression promotes proliferation without development in a multipotent hematopoietic cell line.

      Pierce, A; Whetton, Anthony D; Owen-Lynch, P J; Tavernier, J; Spooncer, Elaine; Dexter, T Michael; Heyworth, Clare M; Leukemia Research Fund, Cellular Development Unit, UMIST, Manchester M60 1QD, UK. (1998-03)
      The interleukin-5 (IL-5) receptor is a heterodimer that consists of an IL-5 specific alpha subunit and a common ssc chain that is shared with the receptors for granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3). In contrast to IL-5, which acts mainly as an eosinophil lineage specific factor in vivo, IL-3 and GM-CSF stimulate the survival, proliferation and development of various hematopoietic cell lineages and also multipotent progenitor cells. IL-5 has little effect on the survival or proliferation of the multipotent stem cell line FDCP-Mix A4 but does promote some eosinophil development. To investigate whether the lineage specificity of IL-5 is due to the restricted expression of the IL-5 receptor alpha subunit we transfected the FDCP-Mix A4 cells with a retroviral vector containing this alpha subunit. The ectopic expression of the IL-5 receptor alpha subunit in the FDCP-Mix cells did not increase the observed eosinophilic development but did stimulate survival and proliferation of the transfected cells when IL-5 was added. IL-5 thus acts like IL-3 in these cells, promoting proliferation and survival. The results suggest that IL-5, whilst having a capacity to promote proliferation, does not influence eosinophilic lineage commitment in these multipotent cells. The results further argue that the observed lineage specificity of IL-5 is probably due to factors in addition to the restricted expression of the IL-5 receptor alpha subunit.
    • The effect of a 600 MeV neutron beam on mouse bone marrow.

      Hendry, Jolyon H; Baarli, J; Bianchi, M; Sullivan, A; Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (1979-04)
    • Effect of a farnesyl transferase inhibitor (R115777) on ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in a human xenograft model and on breast and ovarian cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

      Wärnberg, Fredrik; White, Daniel J; Anderson, Elizabeth; Knox, W Fiona; Clarke, Robert B; Morris, Julie; Bundred, Nigel J; Breast Biology Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK. fredrik.warnberg@akademiska.se (2006)
      INTRODUCTION: The ras pathway is essential for cell growth and proliferation. The effects of R115777, a farnesyl transferase inhibitor, were investigated in cancer cell lines expressing varying levels of growth factor receptors and with differing ras status. Effects on tumour xenografts and human ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast in a xenograft mouse model were also tested. METHOD: In vitro, the concentrations required to reduce cell numbers by 50% (50% inhibitory concentration) were established (MDA-MB231, MCF-7, MCF-7/HER2-18, BT-474, SK-BR3 and SKOV3). Human DCIS was implanted in nude mice or, in separate experiments, cultured cells were injected (MDA-MB231, MCF-7/HER2-18, SKOV3) and allowed to form tumours. Proliferation and apoptosis were determined by immunohistochemistry in xenografts and cell tumours. RESULTS: The 50% inhibitory concentrations varied a hundred-fold, from 39 nmol/l (+/- 26 nmol/l) for SKBR3 to 5.9 micromol/l(+/- 0.8 micromol/l) for MDA-MB231. In MCF-7/HER2-18 and SKOV3 cells the levels of tumour growth inhibition were approximately 85% and 40%, respectively. There was a significant decrease in the cell turnover index (CTI; proliferation/apoptosis). In MDA-MB 231 with activated k-ras no inhibition was observed. In treated DCIS xenografts proliferation decreased and apoptosis increased. The CTI ratio between the start and 1 and 2 weeks of treatment were 1.99 and 1.50, respectively, for controls and 0.85 (P = 0.005) and 0.75 (P = 0.08) for treated xenografts. CONCLUSION : Treatment with the farnesyl transferase inhibitor reduced cell growth in vitro and cell tumour growth in vivo. In DCIS treatment resulted in a reduced CTI. R115777 is a promising treatment for breast cancer but the relation between effect and growth factor receptor and ras status has to be established.
    • The effect of a native collagen gel substratum on the synthesis of collagen by bovine brain capillary endothelial cells.

      Scott, D M; Kumar, Shant; Barnes, M J; Strangeways Research Laboratory, Worts Causeway, Cambridge, U.K. (1988-07)
      Cultured capillary endothelial cells, derived from bovine brain, and maintained on a plastic substratum synthesized predominantly interstitial collagens of which approximately 75 per cent were secreted into the medium. When grown on a native hydrated collagen type I gel, although no marked alteration in the 'collagen synthetic pattern' was observed, the overall level of collagen synthesis was increased by approximately 100 per cent. More dramatic, however, was the alteration in the distribution of these molecules between medium and cell layer. Interstitial collagens produced by cells grown on collagen gels were almost exclusively associated with the cell layer or collagenous gel. These studies, thus, demonstrate that an extracellular matrix may exert a considerable influence on the cellular synthetic activities and possibly cellular polarity of capillary endothelial cells.
    • Effect of acute doses of 2-acetylaminofluorene on the capacity of rat liver to repair methylated purines in DNA in vivo and in vitro.

      Cooper, Donald P; O'Connor, Peter J; Margison, Geoffrey P (1982-10)
      Male Wistar rats were given various doses of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) at doses of 0.74, 2.22, 6.67, or 20 mg/kg i.p. 24 hr before administration of [14C]dimethylnitrosamine (1 or 2 mg/kg i.p.). Analysis of liver DNA isolated from animals killed 5 hr later showed variations between groups treated with different amounts of AAF in the amounts of 3-methyladenine, 7-methylguanine, and O6-methylguanine (O6-mGua). However, the relative amounts of these products were unchanged by AAF pretreatment except after 20 mg/kg when the reduced O6-mGua:7-methylguanine ratio indicated enhanced O6-mGua repair. Specific enhancement of O6-mGua repair was also found 5 hr after administration of [14C]methylnitrosourea (11.5 mg/kg) to animals pretreated with AAF (20 mg/kg), while the amounts of O6-mGua in liver ribosomal RNA afer [14C]dimethylnitrosamine were unaffected by this AAF dose. Pretreatment of rats with AAF 29 hr earlier increased the capacity of cell-free liver extracts to remove O6-mGua from [3H]methylnitrosourea-methylated DNA in vitro. The increase was detectable after 2.22 mg/kg and reached a maximum 3.5-fold increase after AAF, (60 mg/kg). 7-Methylguanine and 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase activities were also increased, but this was independent of the dose of AAF. AAF pretreatment produced a slight (3- to 4-fold) increase in incorporation of [3H]thymidine or labeled one-carbon breakdown products of [14C]dimethylnitrosamine into liver DNA which appeared to parallel in vitro O6-mGua repair enhancement, but the increased [3H]thymidine uptake was statistically significant only after the 60-mg/kg dose.
    • Effect of addition of FLT-3 ligand and megakaryocyte growth and development factor on hemopoietic cells in serum-free conditions.

      Rossi, Barbara; Zanolin, Elisabetta; Vincenzi, Carlo; Diani, Franco; Pizzolo, Giovanni; De Wynter, Erika A; Nadali, Gianpaolo; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Hematology, University of Verona, Italy. (2004-08)
      The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms that regulate hematopoietic cell expansion in vitro by identifying defined culture conditions. We report the results of experiments with CD34(+) cells from cord blood (CB, n = 13), bone marrow (BM, n = 4), and mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC, n = 5) using two combinations of cytokines: (A) granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), stem cell factor (SCF), erythropoietin (EPO), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-b) and (B) combination A plus FLT3 ligand (FL) and megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG rhMGDF). Cultures of immunoselected CD34(+) cells were performed in serum-free liquid medium without serum substitutes. The area under the curve (AUC) obtained by plotting the logarithm of the total number of viable cells, CD34(+) cells, and CFC per well, toward the week of culture was used as an index of cell expansion. With CB, a significant difference was obtained between the two combinations of cytokines with regard to the total number of viable cells, GM-CFC, and CD34(+) cells. The difference between the two combinations of cytokines obtained with BM was significant with respect to the total number of viable cells and CD34(+) cells but not for the erythroid and myeloid progenitors. When CD34(+) cells from peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) were cultured in presence of the two combinations of cytokines, the difference in terms of AUC was not statistically significant. Our data indicate additional effects in terms of proliferation and expansion of hematopoietic cells in serum-free conditions when FL and polyethylene glycol (PEG) rhMGDF are included in culture and suggest a differential activity of these cytokines on cells from different hematopoietic sources.
    • The effect of adherent and phagocytic cells on human lymphocyte PHA responsiveness.

      Potter, M R; Moore, Michael; Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (1977-01)
      The effect of small numbers of adherent and phagocytic cells on the human peripheral blood lymphocyte response to PHA was examined by depleting these cells from lymphocyte preparations. Lymphocyte preparations obtained by centrifugation on Ficoll--Triosil, which contained on average 85% lymphocytes, responded well to PHA. Depletion of cells adhering to nylon fibre, giving a population containing on average 95% lymphocytes, resulted in a considerably reduced response. Depletion of cells that adhered to plastic or ingested iron powder to give populations containing on average 90% lymphocytes, also reduced the PHA response, but to a lesser extent. Reduction in PHA responsiveness correlated with increasing lymphocyte purity. The responsiveness of nylon-column-filtered cells could be restored by adding a small number of cells from a monocyte-rich population.
    • The effect of age and menstrual cycle upon proliferative activity of the normal human breast.

      Potten, Christopher S; Watson, R J; Williams, G T; Tickle, S; Roberts, Stephen A; Harris, Martin; Howell, Anthony; Department of Epithelial Biology, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester, UK. (1988-08)
      The aim of this study was to determine the proliferative activity within the epithelial cells of the normal human breast in 122 patients (6 reduction mammoplasties and 116 fibroadenoma excisions) in relation to age and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Thirty three of the patients were on oral contraceptives and 33 were parous. Thin tissue slices were incubated with tritiated thymidine and processed for autoradiography. Other samples were fixed directly and prepared for histology. The labelling, mitotic and apoptotic indices (LI, MI and AI) were determined and all illustrated considerable variability. The labelling indices are significantly (P less than 0.05) influenced by both patient age and stage during the menstrual cycle and ranged from 0-11.5%. Maximum LI values were obtained on the 20.8th day of the cycle. A square root transformation of the data was used to reduce the skewness of the data to a more normal distribution. The square root of the LI declined by 0.22 per decade. The mitotic data showed similar significant (P less than 0.05) correlations against age and day of cycle with a peak on the 21.5th day of the cycle, a decline by 0.072 per decade and a range from 0-0.6%. The data for apoptotic cells were less clearly influenced by the stage of the menstrual cycle but showed a significant (P less than 0.5) decline with age. The AI in parous patients was significantly higher than that in non-parous patients. There was no significant effect of oral contraceptives on any of the parameters measured when age and stage of cycle were taken into account. The considerable variability in the data could not be fully accounted for by either technical factors, the age of the patients, or the day of the cycle. We conclude that proliferation is negatively related to age and is influenced by the menstrual cycle but that additional as yet unknown factors must account for a large part of the variability seen in the data.
    • The effect of alpha4 beta1-integrin binding sequences of fibronectin on growth of cells from human hematopoietic progenitors.

      Schofield, Karen P; Humphries, M J; De Wynter, Erika A; Testa, Nydia G; Gallagher, John T; Departments of Medical Oncology and Experimental Haematology, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester, UK. (1998-05-01)
      Highly regulated interactions between adhesion receptors on progenitor cells and their extracellular matrix ligands are essential for the control of hematopoiesis in bone marrow stroma. We have examined the relationship between alpha4beta1-integrin-mediated adhesion and growth of CD34(+) cells by assessing their adhesive and migratory patterns of proliferation in a mixture of hematopoietic growth factors in the presence of different recombinant fragments of the HepII/IIICS region of fibronectin. CD34(+) cells were isolated from cord blood and placed in culture wells containing serum-free medium and growth factors. Wells were precoated with either the H120 fragment of fibronectin, which contains three alpha4beta1-integrin binding sites, or the H0 fragment, which lacks the two highest affinity alpha4beta1 binding sequences. Proliferation of single cells of CD34(+)38(+)DR+ and CD34(+)38(-)DR+ phenotypes occurred in contact with the H120 substrate and was associated with migration. Larger numbers of cells were used to quantitate proliferative responses. Cells growing in wells coated with H120 formed attachments to the base of the wells throughout the culture period. Higher total cell counts were consistently found in wells coated with H120 compared with H0 and bovine serum albumin controls. The difference was first apparent at day 8 of culture and reached a maximum at days 11 through 13, when expansion with H120 was a mean of 1.8-fold higher than that seen with H0 (P
    • The effect of BCG stimulation on natural cytotoxicity in the rat.

      Potter, M R; Moore, Michael; Immunology Division, Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (1980-03)
      The natural cytotoxic activity of lymphoid cell populations from control and BCG-stimulated rats was examined using four target cell lines, K562, CCRF/CEM, Bri8 and Mc40. In control rats, the cytotoxicity of peritoneal cells was below that of spleen cells but above that of peripheral lymph node cells. Intraperitoneal injection of BCG induced a significant dose and time-dependent augmentation of cytotoxicity by peritoneal cells from W/Not and PVG/c rats, against all four cell lines. The increased activity reached a peak on days 4 and 5 after injection and returned to control levels by day 12. Spleen and lymph node cells from stimulated rats did not show increased cytotoxicity. K562 and CCRF/CEM target cells were considerably more susceptible to killing than Bri8 and Mc40 target cells. Separation of peritoneal cells from BCG-treated rats by density-gradient centrifugation gave an interface population, enriched with mononuclear cells showing high cytotoxic activity and a pellet population enriched with polymorphs showing very low activity. Nylon-fibre column filtration gave non-adherent and adherent cytotoxic populations. Cytotoxic activity was not diminished by removing cells adhering to Sephadex G10 or cells phagocytosing carbonyl iron, suggesting that much of the activity in this system was due to non-phagocytic mononuclear cell populations.