• More than meets the ISG15: emerging roles in the DNA damage response and beyond

      Sandy, Zac; da Costa, Isabelle Cristine; Schmidt, Christine K; Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Division of Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4GJ, UK. (2020)
      Maintenance of genome stability is a crucial priority for any organism. To meet this priority, robust signalling networks exist to facilitate error-free DNA replication and repair. These signalling cascades are subject to various regulatory post-translational modifications that range from simple additions of chemical moieties to the conjugation of ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs). Interferon Stimulated Gene 15 (ISG15) is one such UBL. While classically thought of as a component of antiviral immunity, ISG15 has recently emerged as a regulator of genome stability, with key roles in the DNA damage response (DDR) to modulate p53 signalling and error-free DNA replication. Additional proteomic analyses and cancer-focused studies hint at wider-reaching, uncharacterised functions for ISG15 in genome stability. We review these recent discoveries and highlight future perspectives to increase our understanding of this multifaceted UBL in health and disease.