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Nitric oxide and pulmonary arterial hypertension.Chester, A; Yacoub, M; Moncada, Salvador; National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Heart Science Centre, Harefield, Middlesex, UB9 6JH, United Kingdom (2017-06-30)The pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension remains undefined. Changes in the expression and effects mediated by a number of vasoactive factors have been implicated to play a role in the onset and progression of the disease. The source of many of these mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelin-1 (ET-1), is the pulmonary endothelium. This article focus in the role of nitric oxide in PAH, reviewing the evidence for its involvement in regulation of pulmonary a vascular tone under physiological conditions, the mechanisms by which it can contribute to the pathological changes seen in PAH and strategies for the use of NO as a therapy for treatment of the disease.