• The biochemistry and biology of the myeloid haemopoietic cell growth factors.

      Heyworth, Clare M; Vallance, S J; Whetton, Anthony D; Dexter, T Michael; Department of Experimental Haematology, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester, UK. (1990)
      In the adult, blood cell production or haemopoiesis takes place mainly in the bone marrow. The blood cell types produced are a reflection of the needs of the organism at any moment, for example bacterial infection leads to a large increase in neutrophil production. The rate and scale of blood cell production in vivo are regulated, at least in part, by the synthesis and release of specific cytokines both within the bone marrow and also from other tissues. Here we detail the range of cytokines which act directly on haemopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells. Also cellular systems which will permit the elucidation of the specific interactions between these various cytokines which regulate stem cell self-renewal, differentiation and proliferation are described.
    • Development of multipotential haemopoietic stem cells to neutrophils is associated with increased expression of receptors for granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor: altered biological responses to GM-CSF during development.

      Heyworth, Clare M; Hampson, J; Dexter, T Michael; Walker, F; Burgess, A W; Kan, O; Cook, N; Vallance, S J; Whetton, Anthony D; Cancer Research Campaign Department of Experimental Haematology, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Withington, Manchester, UK. (1991)
      Interleukin-3 (IL-3) dependent multipotent haemopoietic stem cells FDCP-Mix A4 (A4) were induced to differentiate and develop into mature neutrophils in response to Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) plus granulocyte CSF (G-CSF). This resulted in an increase in cell number over seven days of culture, following which the cells lost the ability to undergo further proliferation. The effect of GM-CSF on these cells has been assessed at various stages of development. Clonogenic cells, able to respond to GM-CSF, were generated only at days 3, 4 post-induction. From day 5 onwards, mature post-mitotic neutrophils are produced and clonogenic cells are lost. Loss of proliferative potential, in response to GM-CSF, was confirmed using [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Receptors for GM-CSF, were also measured during development using [125I]-GM-CSF binding assays. Although the dissociation constant for GM-CSF binding sites did not vary considerably, the number of such sites increased dramatically from about 20 (day 0, when the cells have a primitive morphology) to about 1000 by day 6 (when the cells are predominantly mature neutrophils). GM-CSF-stimulated Na+/H+ antiport activation was also determined. Although few GM-CSF receptors are expressed at day 0, there is a significant response (63% of maximal) to GM-CSF in terms of intracellular alkalinisation: this response increased markedly until, by day 4 (700 GM-CSF binding sites/cell), there is a maximal activation of the antiport by GM-CSF. By day 7 (greater than 900 GM-CSF binding sites/cell), however, there is significant reduction in activation of the Na+/H+ antiport by GM-CSF. Nonetheless, increased viability of these mature cells is still seen in response to GM-CSF. These results suggest that not only does expression of GM-CSF receptors alter during development of multipotential cells to mature neutrophils, but that these receptors are coupled to different intracellular effector mechanisms as the cells progressively mature.
    • Interleukin-3-stimulated haemopoietic stem cell proliferation. Evidence for activation of protein kinase C and Na+/H+ exchange without inositol lipid hydrolysis.

      Whetton, Anthony D; Vallance, S J; Monk, P N; Cragoe, E J; Dexter, T Michael; Heyworth, Clare M; Department of Biochemistry and Applied Molecular Biology, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, U.K. (1988-12-01)
      Interleukin 3 (IL-3) is an important regulator of haemopoietic stem cell proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. Little is known about the possible mechanisms whereby this growth factor acts on stem cells to stimulate cell survival and proliferation. Here we have investigated the role of intracellular pH and the Na+/H+ antiport in stem cell proliferation using the multipotential IL-3-dependent stem cell line, FDCP-Mix 1. Evidence is presented that IL-3 can stimulate the activation of an amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ exchange via protein kinase C activation. IL-3-mediated activation of the Na+/H+ exchange is not observed in FDCP-Mix 1 cells where protein kinase C levels have been down-modulated by treatment with phorbol esters. Also the protein kinase C inhibitor H7 can inhibit IL-3-mediated increases in intracellular pH. This activation of Na+/H+ exchange via protein kinase C has been shown to occur with no measurable effects of IL-3 on inositol lipid hydrolysis or on cytosolic Ca2+ levels. Evidence is also presented that this IL-3-stimulated alkalinization acts as a signal for cellular proliferation in stem cells.