• Cytotoxicity of the bioreductive agent RH1 and its lack of interaction with radiation.

      Kim, Joo-Young; West, Catharine M L; Valentine, Helen R; Ward, Timothy H; Patterson, Adam V; Stratford, Ian J; Roberts, Stephen A; Hendry, Jolyon H; Cancer Research UK Groups of Experimental Radiation Oncology, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK. (2004-03)
      BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: RH1 is a new bioreductive agent that was developed as a cytotoxic agent with selectivity for tumour cells expressing high levels of the enzyme DT-diaphorase (DTD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of RH1 in relation to cellular levels of reducing enzymes and any interaction of RH1 with ionizing radiation under oxic and hypoxic conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The MB-MDA231 human breast cancer cell line (WT) and WT cells transfected with the NQO1 gene encoding DTD (the D7 cell line) were used to examine the dependency of RH1's cytotoxicity on cellular DTD activity. The role of the 1-electron reducing enzyme P450 reductase was also studied using a P450 reductase-transfected isogenic cell line (R4). A clonogenic assay was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of RH1 with and without irradiation in air and in nitrogen. In all cases drug exposure was for 3 h. RESULTS: DTD levels were around 300-fold higher in D7 compared to WT and R4 cells. RH1 was cytotoxic at nanomolar concentrations to all the cell lines, and was 2-3 times more toxic in the D7 cells with high DTD than in the other two cell lines. Doses of RH1 was around 2-fold more effective in hypoxic than in oxic WT cells, but not by as much in D7 cells. RH1 did not radiosensitise the cells but showed an additive effect when combined with irradiation under oxic and hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: RH1 shows high clonogenic cytotoxicity to MDA231 cells with high DTD activity but its selectivity based on the presence of DTD is much less than as shown in previous reports. RH1 showed an additive cell killing effect when combined with irradiation under both oxic and hypoxic conditions.
    • Enhanced stability of microRNA expression facilitates classification of FFPE tumour samples exhibiting near total mRNA degradation.

      Hall, J S; Taylor, J; Valentine, Helen R; Irlam, Joely J; Eustace, A; Hoskin, P J; Miller, Crispin J; West, Catharine M L; Translational Radiobiology Group, School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. (2012-08-07)
      As degradation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples limits the ability to profile mRNA expression, we explored factors predicting the success of mRNA expression profiling of FFPE material and investigated an approach to overcome the limitation.
    • Exon-array profiling unlocks clinically and biologically relevant gene signatures from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour samples.

      Hall, J S; Leong, Hui Sun; Armenoult, L S C; Newton, G E; Valentine, Helen R; Irlam, Joely J; Möller-Levet, Carla S; Sikand, Kanwal A; Pepper, Stuart D; Miller, Crispin J; et al. (2011-03-15)
      Degradation and chemical modification of RNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples hamper their use in expression profiling studies. This study aimed to show that useful information can be obtained by Exon-array profiling archival FFPE tumour samples.
    • The intrinsic radiosensitivity of normal and tumour cells.

      West, Catharine M L; Davidson, Susan E; Elyan, S A; Swindell, Ric; Roberts, Stephen A; Orton, C J; Coyle, C A; Valentine, Helen R; Wilks, Deepti P; Hunter, Robin D; et al. (1998-04)
      PURPOSE: To examine whether in vitro measurements of normal and tumour cell radiosensitivity can be used as prognostic factors in clinical oncology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stage I-III cervix carcinoma patients were treated with radical radiotherapy with a minimum of 3 years' follow-up. Lymphocyte and tumour radiosensitivities were assayed using, respectively, a limiting dilution and soft agar clonogenic assay to obtain surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2). The results were related, in an actuarial analysis, to late morbidity assessed using the Franco Italian glossary. RESULTS: Patients with radiosensitive lymphocytes had a significantly increased risk of developing late complications (n = 93, p = 0.002). Increasing tumour radiosensitivity was associated with an increased risk of morbidity (n= 113, p=0.032). A significant correlation was found between fibroblast and tumour cell radiosensitivity (r=0.57, p=0.03), but a weak inverse association was found between lymphocyte and tumour cell radiosensitivity (r= -0.32, p=0.03). Patients with radiosensitive lymphocytes and tumour cells had higher levels of late complications than those whose cells were radioresistant. CONCLUSION: The work described highlights the importance of cellular radiosensitivity as a parameter determining the clinical response to radiotherapy.
    • Lymphocyte radiosensitivity is a significant prognostic factor for morbidity in carcinoma of the cervix.

      West, Catharine M L; Davidson, Susan E; Elyan, S A; Valentine, Helen R; Roberts, Stephen A; Swindell, Ric; Hunter, Robin D; CRC Experimental Radiation Oncology Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester, United Kingdom. cwest@picr.man.ac.uk (2001-09-01)
      PURPOSE: To study the relationship between pretreatment peripheral blood lymphocyte radiosensitivity and morbidity following radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A prospective study was carried out in which patients with carcinoma of the cervix underwent radiation therapy. Intrinsic radiosensitivity was measured on pretreatment peripheral blood lymphocytes, using a limiting dilution clonogenic assay. Late morbidity was assessed using the Franco-Italian glossary. Results were correlated in an actuarial analysis. RESULTS: There were no correlations between the measured lymphocyte radiosensitivity (SF2) and colony-forming efficiency, patient age, tumor grade, or disease stage. For 83 patients, lymphocyte SF2 was a significant prognostic factor for the probability of developing both any (p = 0.002) and Grade 3 (p = 0.026) morbidity. In 174 patients, stage showed borderline significance as a prognostic factor for morbidity (p = 0.056). However, the type of treatment (intracavitary alone, intracavitary plus parametrial irradiation, single insertion plus whole-pelvis irradiation) was significantly associated with the probability of developing late complications (p = 0.013). There was a weak significant inverse correlation between lymphocyte SF2 and grade of morbidity (r = -0.34, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: These data highlight the importance of normal cell radiosensitivity as a factor determining radiation therapy response. They also show that peripheral blood lymphocyte SF2 is a highly significant prognostic factor for the probability of developing late radiation morbidity, and that carcinoma of the cervix is a good model for testing radiobiologic principles in the clinic.
    • Perfusion Estimated with Rapid Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates Inversely with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Pimonidazole Staining in Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Pilot Study.

      Donaldson, Stephanie B; Betts, Guy N J; Bonington, Suzanne C; Homer, Jarrod J; Slevin, Nicholas J; Kershaw, Lucy E; Valentine, Helen R; West, Catharine M L; Buckley, David L; School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kindom; North Western Medical Physics, The Christie, Manchester, United Kingdom. (2011-05-04)
      PURPOSE: To analyze, in a pilot study, rapidly acquired dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI data with a general two-compartment exchange tracer kinetic model and correlate parameters obtained with measurements of hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eight patients were scanned before surgery. The DCE-MRI data were acquired with 1.5-s temporal resolution and analyzed using the two-compartment exchange tracer kinetic model to obtain estimates of parameters including perfusion and permeability surface area. Twelve to 16 h before surgery, patients received an intravenous injection of pimonidazole. Samples taken during surgery were used to determine the level of pimonidazole staining using immunohistochemistry and VEGF expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Correlations between the biological and imaging data were examined. RESULTS: Of the seven tumors fully analyzed, those that were poorly perfused tended to have high levels of pimonidazole staining (r = -0.79, p = 0.03) and VEGF expression (r = -0.82, p = 0.02). Tumors with low permeability surface area also tended to have high levels of hypoxia (r = -0.75, p = 0.05). Hypoxic tumors also expressed higher levels of VEGF (r = 0.82, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of perfusion obtained with rapid DCE-MRI data in patients with head-and-neck cancer correlate inversely with pimonidazole staining and VEGF expression.
    • Relation of a hypoxia metagene derived from head and neck cancer to prognosis of multiple cancers.

      Winter, Stuart C; Buffa, Francesca M; Silva, Priyamal; Miller, Crispin J; Valentine, Helen R; Turley, Helen; Shah, Ketan A; Cox, Graham J; Corbridge, Rogan J; Homer, Jarrod J; et al. (2007-04-01)
      Affymetrix U133plus2 GeneChips were used to profile 59 head and neck squamous cell cancers. A hypoxia metagene was obtained by analysis of genes whose in vivo expression clustered with the expression of 10 well-known hypoxia-regulated genes (e.g., CA9, GLUT1, and VEGF). To minimize random aggregation, strongly correlated up-regulated genes appearing in >50% of clusters defined a signature comprising 99 genes, of which 27% were previously known to be hypoxia associated. The median RNA expression of the 99 genes in the signature was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival in a publicly available head and neck cancer data set, outdoing the original intrinsic classifier. In a published breast cancer series, the hypoxia signature was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival independent of clinicopathologic risk factors and a trained profile. The work highlights the validity and potential of using data from analysis of in vitro stress pathways for deriving a biological metagene/gene signature in vivo.
    • Tissue factor expression in the metaplasia-adenoma-carcinoma sequence of gastric cancer in a European population.

      Lo, L; Valentine, Helen R; Harrison, J; Hayes, S; Welch, I; Pritchard, S; West, Catharine M L; Ang, Y; Royal Perth Hospital, GPO Box X2213, Perth, Western Australia. (2012-09-25)
      Tissue factor (TF), which has a role in normal tissue haemostasis, was reported to be aberrantly expressed, associated with higher microvascular density and a poor prognosis in intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma in the Japanese population. This is the first study to look at the relationship of TF and the metaplasia-adenoma-carcinoma sequence (MACS) of gastric cancer in a European population.