• Emerging roles of the tumor-associated stroma in promoting tumor metastasis.

      Horimoto, Y; Polanska, Urszula M; Takahashi, Y; Orimo, Akira; Atopy Research Centre, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. (2012)
      The stroma in human carcinomas consists of extracellular matrix and various types of non-carcinoma cells, mainly leukocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and bone marrow-derived progenitors. The tumor-associated stroma actively supports tumor growth by stimulating neo-angiogenesis, as well as proliferation and invasion of apposed carcinoma cells. It has long been accepted that alterations within carcinoma cells mediate metastasis in a cell-autonomous fashion. Recent studies have, however, suggested an additional notion that cancer cells instigate local and systemic changes in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to niche formation for metastasis. Research, aiming to establish the roles of the tumor-associated stroma in facilitating the spread of carcinoma cells into distant organs, has provided an abundance of data and greater knowledge of the biology of metastatic carcinoma cells and associated stromal cells. This has stimulated further advances in the development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting tumor metastasis.