• 5T4 glycoprotein regulates the sensory input-dependent development of a specific subtype of newborn interneurons in the mouse olfactory bulb.

      Yoshihara, S; Takahashi, H; Nishimura, N; Naritsuka, H; Shirao, T; Hirai, H; Yoshihara, Y; Mori, K; Stern, Peter L; Tsuboi, A; et al. (2012-02-08)
      Sensory input has been shown to regulate development in a variety of species and in various structures, including the retina, cortex, and olfactory bulb (OB). Within the mammalian OB specifically, the development of dendrites in mitral/tufted cells is well known to be odor-evoked activity dependent. However, little is known about the developmental role of sensory input in the other major OB population of the GABAgenic interneurons, such as granule cells and periglomerular cells. Here, we identified, with DNA microarray and in situ hybridization screenings, a trophoblast glycoprotein gene, 5T4, whose expression in a specific subtype of OB interneurons is dependent on sensory input. 5T4 is a type I membrane protein, whose extracellular domain contains seven leucine-rich repeats (LRR) flanked by characteristic LRR-N-flanking and C-flanking regions, and a cytoplasmic domain. 5T4 overexpression in the newborn OB interneurons facilitated their dendritic arborization even under the sensory input-deprived condition. By contrast, both 5T4 knockdown with RNAi and 5T4 knockout with mice resulted in a significant reduction in the dendritic arborization of 5T4(+) granule cells. Further, we identified the amino acid sequence in the 5T4 cytoplasmic domain that is necessary and sufficient for the sensory input-dependent dendritic shaping of specific neuronal subtypes in the OB. Thus, these results demonstrate that 5T4 glycoprotein contributes in the regulation of activity-dependent dendritic development of interneurons and the formation of functional neural circuitry in the OB.
    • A Subtype of Olfactory Bulb Interneurons Is Required for Odor Detection and Discrimination Behaviors.

      Takahashi, H; Ogawa, Y; Yoshihara, S; Asahina, R; Kinoshita, M; Kitano, T; Kitsuki, M; Tatsumi, K; Okuda, M; Tatsumi, K; et al. (2016-08-03)
      Neural circuits that undergo reorganization by newborn interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) are necessary for odor detection and discrimination, olfactory memory, and innate olfactory responses, including predator avoidance and sexual behaviors. The OB possesses many interneurons, including various types of granule cells (GCs); however, the contribution that each type of interneuron makes to olfactory behavioral control remains unknown. Here, we investigated the in vivo functional role of oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein 5T4, a regulator for dendritic arborization of 5T4-expressing GCs (5T4 GCs), the level of which is reduced in the OB of 5T4 knock-out (KO) mice. Electrophysiological recordings with acute OB slices indicated that external tufted cells (ETCs) can be divided into two types, bursting and nonbursting. Optogenetic stimulation of 5T4 GCs revealed their connection to both bursting and nonbursting ETCs, as well as to mitral cells (MCs). Interestingly, nonbursting ETCs received fewer inhibitory inputs from GCs in 5T4 KO mice than from those in wild-type (WT) mice, whereas bursting ETCs and MCs received similar inputs in both mice. Furthermore, 5T4 GCs received significantly fewer excitatory inputs in 5T4 KO mice. Remarkably, in olfactory behavior tests, 5T4 KO mice had higher odor detection thresholds than the WT, as well as defects in odor discrimination learning. Therefore, the loss of 5T4 attenuates inhibitory inputs from 5T4 GCs to nonbursting ETCs and excitatory inputs to 5T4 GCs, contributing to disturbances in olfactory behavior. Our novel findings suggest that, among the various types of OB interneurons, the 5T4 GC subtype is required for odor detection and discrimination behaviors.