• Bladder tumor contains higher N7-methylguanine levels in DNA than adjacent normal bladder epithelium.

      Saad, Abir A; O'Connor, Peter J; Mostafa, Mostafa H; Metwalli, Nabila E; Cooper, Donald P; Margison, Geoffrey P; Povey, Andrew C; Cancer Research UK Carcinogenesis Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester. (2006-04)
      Schistosoma haematobium-infected patients are more likely to develop bladder cancer and be more exposed to carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds than uninfected patients. As N7-methylguanine is a marker of exposure to methylating agents of this type, we have measured N7-methyldeoxyguanosine 3'-monophosphate (N7-MedGp) by (32)P postlabeling. DNA was isolated from 42 paired normal and tumor tissue of Egyptians with bladder cancer. N7-MedGp was detected in DNA from 93% of the tumors and 74% of the normal bladder tissue samples. Adduct levels were highly variable and ranged from 0.04 to 6.4 and from 0.02 to 0.72 micromol/mol deoxyguanosine 3'-monophosphate (dGp) in tumor and normal DNA, respectively. N7-MedGp levels in normal and tumor DNA were highly correlated with one another (P = 0.007). The mean difference (95% confidence interval) in adduct levels between tumor and normal DNA was 0.21 (0.13-0.32) micromol/mol dGp and this was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The adduct ratio (tumor DNA/normal DNA) varied between 0.2 and 136 (median, 4.6). N7-MedGp levels were not associated with gender, age, or the presence of schistosomiasis. However, lower N7-MedGp levels were found in normal DNA from individuals lacking the GSTM1 gene (P = 0.03) but not the GSTT1 gene or in subjects with the Ile105Val GSTP1 polymorphism. These results show that exposure to methylating agents is widespread and suggest that such exposure may play a role both in tumor initiation and progression.
    • Glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 and P1 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk in Egyptians.

      Saad, Abir A; O'Connor, Peter J; Mostafa, Mostafa H; Metwalli, Nabila E; Cooper, Donald P; Povey, Andrew C; Margison, Geoffrey P; Cancer Research UK Carcinogenesis Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. (2005)
      Previous studies suggest that bladder cancer risk may vary with GST genotype but these results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore whether GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP polymorphisms were associated with increased bladder cancer risk in an Egyptian population. GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotype frequencies were determined in bladder cancer cases (n=72) and healthy controls with no history of malignancies (n=82) using PCR-based techniques. The GSTT1*2 genotype was particularly associated with increased risk (OR 2.71, 95%CI 1.27-5.73) and the GSTM1*2 genotype to a lesser extent (OR 1.63, 95%CI 0.85-3.10). 18.1% of cases but only 7.3% of controls were GSTP1*B*B homozygotes (OR 2.38, 95%CI 0.83-6.87). The presence of two or more a priori at-risk genotypes was associated with increased bladder cancer risk (OR 2.42; 95%CI 1.47-3.97). These results suggest that polymorphisms in the GST genes are associated with increased risk of bladder cancer among Egyptians.