• Eight-year outcomes of a phase III randomized trial of conventional versus hypofractionated high-dose intensity modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer (CRUK/06/016): Update from the CHHiP Trial

      Dearnaley, D; Griffin, C.; Syndikus, I.; Khoo, V.; Birtle, A. J.; Choudhury, Ananya; Ferguson, C.; Graham, J.; O'Sullivan, J.; Panades, M.; et al. (2020)
      Background: CHHiP is a non-inferiority trial to determine efficacy and safety of hypofractionated radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer (PCa). Five year results indicated that moderate hypofractionation of 60 Gray (Gy)/20 fractions (f) was non-inferior to 74Gy/37f (Lancet Oncology, 2016). Moderate hypofractionation is now an international standard of care but with patients remaining at risk of recurrence for many years, information on long-term outcomes is important. Here we report pre-planned analysis of 8 year outcomes. Methods: Between October 2002 and June 2011, 3216 men with node negative T1b-T3a localised PCa with risk of seminal vesical involvement ?30% were randomised (1:1:1 ratio) to 74Gy/37f (control), 60Gy/20f or 57Gy/19f. Androgen deprivation began at least 3 months prior to radiotherapy (RT) and continued until end of RT. The primary endpoint was time to biochemical failure (Phoenix consensus guidelines) or clinical failure (BCF). The non-inferiority design specified a critical hazard ratio (HR) of 1.208 for each hypofractionated schedule compared to 74Gy/37f. Late toxicity was assessed at 5 years by RTOG and LENT-SOM scales. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results: With a median follow up of 9.2 years, 8 year BCF-free rates (95% CI) were 74Gy: 80.6% (77.9%, 83.0%); 60Gy: 83.7% (81.2%, 85.9%) and 57Gy: 78.5% (75.8%, 81.0%). For 60Gy/20f, non-inferiority was confirmed: HR60=0.84 (90% CI 0.71, 0.99). For 57Gy/19f, non-inferiority could not be declared: HR57=1.17 (90% CI 1.00, 1.37). Clinician assessments of late toxicity were similar across groups. At 5 years, RTOG grade?2 (G2+) bowel toxicity was observed in 14/879 (1.6%), 18/908 (2.0%) and 17/904 (1.9%) of the 74Gy, 60Gy and 57Gy groups respectively. RTOG G2+ bladder toxicity was observed in 17/879 (1.9%), 14/908 (1.5%) and 17/904 (1.9%) of the 74Gy, 60Gy and 57Gy groups respectively. Conclusions: With BCF rates over 80%, long-term follow-up confirms that 60Gy/20f is non-inferior to 74Gy/37f. Late side effects were very low across all groups. These results support the continued use of 60Gy/20f as standard of care for men with localised PCa. Clinical trial information: 97182923.