• Lymphatic vessel density, microvessel density and lymphangiogenic growth factor expression in colorectal cancer.

      Duff, Sarah E; Jeziorska, M; Kumar, Shant; Haboubi, Najib; Sherlock, David J; O'Dwyer, Sarah T; Jayson, Gordon C; Department of Surgery, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK. saraheduff@aol.com (2007-11)
      OBJECTIVE: Microvessel density (MVD) has been studied as a prognostic marker in human cancers. Quantification of lymphatic vessel density (LVD) is now possible by using new antibodies. Expression of the lymphangiogenic growth factors, VEGF-C and VEGF-D, is associated with poorer clinicopathological outcomes in various tumours. The aim of this study was to quantify LVD and MVD in colorectal cancer, determine the relationship between LVD, MVD and clinicopathological variables and examine the relationship between LVD and tumour expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D. METHOD: Thirty primary colorectal cancers were immunostained for CD34, lymph vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1), VEGF-A and VEGF-D using standard techniques. LVD and MVD were determined by Chalkley grid counting. Tumours were assessed for the presence or absence of LYVE-1 positive lymphatics at different areas within the tumour and the tumour was scored for VEGF-C and VEGF-D immunostaining intensity at the invading tumour edge. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis and a P-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. RESULTS: Lymph vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 was an excellent lymphatic vessel marker. Within normal bowel wall, lymphatic vessels were found rarely in the superficial colonic mucosa, but were numerous in the submucosa and muscularis propria. In the majority of tumours, lymphatic vessels were located in the peri-tumoural area, intra-tumoural vessels were sparse and tended to be narrow with closed lumina. At the invading tumour edge, VEGF-C expression was higher (P = 0.028) and VEGF-D expression lower (P = 0.011), in tumours in which lymphatic vessels were present. No significant differences between LVD and any clinicopathological variable or route of metastasis were identified. CONCLUSION: Lymphatic vessel density and MVD can be quantified in colorectal carcinoma using immunohistochemical techniques. The balance between expression of VEGF-C and VEGF-D at the invading tumour edge may enhance lymphatic metastasis, by promoting tumour lymphangiogenesis or by activation of pre-existing lymphatic vessels. No relationship was identified between LVD and clinicopathological variables.
    • Vascular endothelial growth factors and receptors in colorectal cancer: implications for anti-angiogenic therapy.

      Duff, Sarah E; Jeziorska, M; Rosa, Daniela D; Kumar, Shant; Haboubi, Najib; Sherlock, David J; O'Dwyer, Sarah T; Jayson, Gordon C; Department of Surgery, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, United Kingdom. (2006-01)
      There are conflicting associations between growth factor expression and clinicopathological variables in colorectal cancer. This study aimed to define the expression of members of the VEGF family and the receptor, VEGFR2, in primary and metastatic sites of colorectal cancer and their relationship to metastatic potential. Thirty colorectal cancers, 12 lymph node metastases and 9 liver metastases were immunostained for VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGFR2. VEGFR2 was expressed by endothelial cells and by the malignant epithelium. VEGF-C and VEGFR2 were co-expressed in the same territory and correlated throughout the primary tumour and in metastatic lymph nodes, but not in liver metastases. Their expression at the invasive tumour edge correlated with expression in metastatic nodes. The benefit of anti-VEGF antibodies might be increased by directing additional therapies against VEGF-C or against the kinase receptors to target redundancy in the system. A component of the therapeutic benefit might be due to a direct anti-tumour effect as well as an anti-angiogenic effect.