• Familial breast cancer and the hCHK2 1100delC mutation: assessing cancer risk.

      Varley, Jennifer; Haber, Daniel A; CR-UK Department of Cancer Genetics, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester, UK. jvarley@picr.man.ac.uk (2003)
      Germline mutations in the human checkpoint gene, hCHK2, were first identified in 1999 in cases of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Recent studies have demonstrated that the hCHK2 1100delC mutation acts as a low-penetrance tumour suppressor gene in familial breast cancer not associated with mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The present article describes the published studies on hCHK2 1100delC and addresses some of the key questions raised.
    • Heterozygous germ line hCHK2 mutations in Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

      Bell, D W; Varley, Jennifer; Szydlo, T E; Kang, D H; Wahrer, D C; Shannon, K E; Lubratovich, M; Verselis, S J; Isselbacher, K J; Fraumeni, J F; et al. (1999-12-24)
      The hCHK2 gene encodes the human homolog of the yeast Cds1 and Rad53 G2 checkpoint kinases, whose activation in response to DNA damage prevents cellular entry into mitosis. Here, it is shown that heterozygous germ line mutations in hCHK2 occur in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a highly penetrant familial cancer phenotype usually associated with inherited mutations in the TP53 gene. These observations suggest that hCHK2 is a tumor suppressor gene conferring predisposition to sarcoma, breast cancer, and brain tumors, and they also provide a link between the central role of p53 inactivation in human cancer and the well-defined G2 checkpoint in yeast.