• A distinct plasma lipid signature associated with poor prognosis in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

      Lin, H; Mahon, K; Weir, J; Mundra, P A; Spielman, C; Briscoe, K; Gurney, H; Mallesara, G; Marx, G; Stockler, M; et al. (2017-07-25)
      Lipids are known to influence tumour growth, inflammation, and chemoresistance. However, the association of circulating lipids with the clinical outcome of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is unknown. We investigated associations between the plasma lipidome and clinical outcome in CRPC. Lipidomic profiling by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed on plasma samples from a Phase 1 discovery cohort of 96 CRPC patients. Results were validated in an independent Phase 2 cohort of 63 CRPC patients. Unsupervised analysis of lipidomic profiles (323 lipid species) classified the Phase 1 cohort into two patient subgroups with significant survival differences (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.44-3.68, P=0.0005). The levels of 46 lipids were individually prognostic, and were predominantly sphingolipids with higher levels associated with poor prognosis. A prognostic three-lipid signature was derived (ceramide d18:1/24:1, sphingomyelin d18:2/16:0, phosphatidylcholine 16:0/16:0), and was also associated with shorter survival in the Phase 2 cohort (HR 4.8, 95% CI 2.06-11.1, P=0.0003). The signature was an independent prognostic factor when modelled with clinicopathological factors or metabolic characteristics. The association of plasma lipids with CRPC prognosis suggests a possible role of these lipids in disease progression. Further research is required to determine if therapeutic modulation of the levels of these lipids by targeting their metabolic pathways may improve patient outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    • Haemopoietic cell kinetics in humans treated with rGM-CSF.

      Lord, Brian I; Gurney, H; Chang, James; Thatcher, Nick; Crowther, Derek; Dexter, T Michael; Cancer Research Campaign Department of Experimental Haematology, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester, UK. (1992-01-02)
      We have investigated the kinetics of myeloid cell proliferation in the marrow of patients with small-cell lung cancer and treated with 10 daily subcutaneous injections of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Bone marrow, obtained before and during treatment with the growth factor, was labelled in vitro with tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR). A 3rd bone-marrow sample was obtained 1 hr following an intravenous injection of 3H-TdR. Subsequent daily blood samples were also collected, and 3H-TdR labelling was assessed on these and the marrow preparations by autoradiography. GM-CSF treatment increased the peripheral granulocytic cells nearly 5-fold, but this included significant eosinophilia, so that the neutrophilic granulocytes increased only 3.3-fold. These cells were released from the marrow over a normal time scale, but their peripheral half-life was about 6 times longer than normal and they were probably functionally defective. Furthermore, significant numbers of immature cells were released from the marrow. Neutrophil production stimulated by GM-CSF was thus overestimated by measurement of the apparent peripheral granulocytosis. Increased labelling indices and grain counts in the proliferating granulocytic cells of the marrow indicate shortened cell-cycle times, and the excess granulocyte production appears to be the result of extra amplification divisions in the proliferative compartments.