• (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone resonance assignment for the 1-164 construct of human XRCC4

      Cabello-Lobato, Maria J; Schmidt, Christine K; Cliff, M. J.; Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Division of Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, 555 Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4GJ, UK. (2021)
      DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent the most cytotoxic DNA lesions, as-if mis- or unrepaired-they can cause cell death or lead to genome instability, which in turn can cause cancer. DSBs are repaired by two major pathways termed homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). NHEJ is responsible for repairing the vast majority of DSBs arising in human cells. Defects in NHEJ factors are also associated with microcephaly, primordial dwarfism and immune deficiencies. One of the key proteins important for mediating NHEJ is XRCC4. XRCC4 is a dimer, with the dimer interface mediated by an extended coiled-coil. The N-terminal head domain forms a mixed alpha-beta globular structure. Numerous factors interact with the C-terminus of the coiled-coil domain, which is also associated with significant self-association between XRCC4 dimers. A range of construct lengths of human XRCC4 were expressed and purified, and the 1-164 variant had the best NMR properties, as judged by consistent linewidths, and chemical shift dispersion. In this work we report the 1H, 15 N and 13C backbone resonance assignments of human XRCC4 in the solution form of the 1-164 construct. Assignments were obtained by heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. In total, 156 of 161 assignable residues of XRCC4 were assigned to resonances in the TROSY spectrum, with an additional 11 resonances assigned to His-Tag residues. Prediction of solution secondary structure from a chemical shift analysis using the TALOS + webserver is in good agreement with the published X-ray crystal structures of this protein.
    • Crosstalk between chromatin structure, cohesin activity and transcription

      Maya-Miles, D; Andujar, E; Perez-Alegre, M; Murillo-Pineda, M; Barrientos-Moreno, M; Cabello-Lobato, Maria J; Gomez-Marin, E; Morillo-Huesca, M; Prado, F; Department of Genome Biology, Andalusian Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CABIMER), CSIC-University of Seville-University Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain (2019)
      BACKGROUND: A complex interplay between chromatin and topological machineries is critical for genome architecture and function. However, little is known about these reciprocal interactions, even for cohesin, despite its multiple roles in DNA metabolism. RESULTS: We have used genome-wide analyses to address how cohesins and chromatin structure impact each other in yeast. Cohesin inactivation in scc1-73 mutants during the S and G2 phases causes specific changes in chromatin structure that preferentially take place at promoters; these changes include a significant increase in the occupancy of the - 1 and + 1 nucleosomes. In addition, cohesins play a major role in transcription regulation that is associated with specific promoter chromatin architecture. In scc1-73 cells, downregulated genes are enriched in promoters with short or no nucleosome-free region (NFR) and a fragile nucleosome - 1/RSC complex" particle. These results, together with a preferential increase in the occupancy of nucleosome - 1 of these genes, suggest that cohesins promote transcription activation by helping RSC to form the NFR. In sharp contrast, the scc1-73 upregulated genes are enriched in promoters with an "open" chromatin structure and are mostly at cohesin-enriched regions, suggesting that a local accumulation of cohesins might help to inhibit transcription. On the other hand, a dramatic loss of chromatin integrity by histone depletion during DNA replication has a moderate effect on the accumulation and distribution of cohesin peaks along the genome. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses of the interplay between chromatin integrity and cohesin activity suggest that cohesins play a major role in transcription regulation, which is associated with specific chromatin architecture and cohesin-mediated nucleosome alterations of the regulated promoters. In contrast, chromatin integrity plays only a minor role in the binding and distribution of cohesins."
    • In vivo binding of recombination proteins to non-DSB DNA lesions and to replication forks

      González-Prieto, R.; Cabello-Lobato, Maria J; Prado, F.; Department of Cell and Chemical Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. (2021)
      Homologous recombination (HR) has been extensively studied in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In contrast, much less is known about how HR deals with DNA lesions other than DSBs (e.g., at single-stranded DNA) and replication forks, despite the fact that these DNA structures are associated with most spontaneous recombination events. A major handicap for studying the role of HR at non-DSB DNA lesions and replication forks is the difficulty of discriminating whether a recombination protein is associated with the non-DSB lesion per se or rather with a DSB generated during their processing. Here, we describe a method to follow the in vivo binding of recombination proteins to non-DSB DNA lesions and replication forks. This approach is based on the cleavage and subsequent electrophoretic analysis of the target DNA by the recombination protein fused to the micrococcal nuclease.
    • Microarray screening reveals two non-conventional SUMO-binding modules linked to DNA repair by non-homologous end-joining

      Cabello-Lobato, Maria J; Jenner, M.; Cisneros-Aguirre, M.; Brüninghoff, K.; Sandy, Z.; Ada Costa, Isabella C; Jowitt, T. A.; Loch, C. M.; Jackson, S. P.; Wu, Q.; et al. (2022)
      SUMOylation is critical for numerous cellular signalling pathways, including the maintenance of genome integrity via the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). If misrepaired, DSBs can lead to cancer, neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency and premature ageing. Using systematic human proteome microarray screening combined with widely applicable carbene footprinting, genetic code expansion and high-resolution structural profiling, we define two non-conventional and topology-selective SUMO2-binding regions on XRCC4, a DNA repair protein important for DSB repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Mechanistically, the interaction of SUMO2 and XRCC4 is incompatible with XRCC4 binding to three other proteins important for NHEJ-mediated DSB repair. These findings are consistent with SUMO2 forming a redundant NHEJ layer with the potential to regulate different NHEJ complexes at distinct levels including, but not limited to, XRCC4 interactions with XLF, LIG4 and IFFO1. Regulation of NHEJ is not only relevant for carcinogenesis, but also for the design of precision anti-cancer medicines and the optimisation of CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing. In addition to providing molecular insights into NHEJ, this work uncovers a conserved SUMO-binding module and provides a rich resource on direct SUMO binders exploitable towards uncovering SUMOylation pathways in a wide array of cellular processes.
    • SAMHD1 sheds moonlight on DNA double-strand break repair.

      Cabello-Lobato, Maria J; Wang, Siyue; Schmidt, Christine K; Division of Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre Building, 555 Wilmslow Road, Manchester (2017-09-29)
      SAMHD1 (sterile α motif and histidine (H) aspartate (D) domain-containing protein 1) is known for its antiviral activity of hydrolysing deoxynucleotides required for virus replication. Daddacha et al. identify a hydrolase-independent, moonlighting function of SAMHD1 that facilitates homologous recombination of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by promoting recruitment of C-terminal binding protein interacting protein (CTIP), a DNA-end resection factor, to damaged DNA. These findings could benefit anticancer treatment.