• The detection of alkylation damage in the DNA of human gastrointestinal tissues.

      Hall, C N; Badawi, A F; O'Connor, Peter J; Saffhill, Roy; Department of Surgery, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester. (1991-07)
      Damage arising from putative environmental sources has been found in the DNA of the gastric and colorectal mucosae of patients presenting with gastrointestinal disorders from the South Manchester area. O6-Methylguanine (O6-MeG) in the range 0.010- greater than 0.300 mu moles mole-1 adenine was heterogeneously distributed both between and within individuals. The pattern of alkylation of tissue DNA appears to differ when comparison is made between gastric and colorectal samples. Most of the gastric tumour DNA samples were alkylated (5/6; 0.087 +/- 0.097), whereas the DNA of the associated mucosa was alkylated less frequently (2/7) and to a lesser extent; (0.017 +/- 0.030; P = 0.07). Conversely, colorectal tumour DNA was alkylated infrequently (1/7) and to a lower extent (0.003 +/- 0.007) than the DNA of the adjacent mucosa (8/10 samples alkylated with a mean of 0.083 +/- 0.106; P = less than 0.01), or indeed of any other tissue. Although increased levels of DNA damage in tissue associated with malignant disease have been indicated by independent studies of DNA damage at other cancer sites, significant differences were not observed in the present report, neither was there any suggestion of a relationship with smoking or alcohol consumption. The data provided by this report indicate that exposure to putative environmental alkylating agents occurs in the UK at levels comparable to those previously detected in areas of higher cancer risk. Although we cannot determine the extent to which this DNA damage is attributable to normal background exposures, it is evident that the alkylation of tissue DNA occurs and is not uniform. In conjunction with other reports, therefore these differences may begin to provide indications of mechanisms that could be of relevance in the aetiology of gastrointestinal cancers.
    • Elevated levels of the pro-carcinogenic adduct, O(6)-methylguanine, in normal DNA from the cancer prone regions of the large bowel.

      Povey, Andrew C; Hall, C Nicholas; Badawi, A F; Cooper, Donald P; O'Connor, Peter J; Cancer Research Campaign Section of Genome Damage and Repair, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester, M20 9BX, UK. apovey@fsi.scg.man.ac.uk (2000-09)
      BACKGROUND: The pro-mutagenic lesion O(6)-methyldeoxyguanosine (O(6)-MedG), a marker of exposure to many N-nitroso compounds (NOC), can be detected in normal and tumour DNA isolated from colorectal tissue. The biological significance of this exposure is, as yet, unknown but in situ NOC formation is bacterially catalysed suggesting that NOC formation and potentially DNA alkylation will vary throughout the large bowel. AIMS: To determine if O(6)-MedG levels in colorectal DNA vary within the large bowel. PATIENTS: We studied 62 men and women undergoing surgery for colorectal tumours in the north west of England. METHODS: O(6)-MedG levels were measured in paired normal and tumour DNA samples. DNA was digested to nucleosides, fractionated by HPLC, and purified O(6)-MedG quantified by a radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: O(6)-MedG was detected in 27 out of a total of 62 (43%) normal DNA samples and in 30 of 58 (52%) tumour DNA samples: it was present at concentrations of <0. 01-0.94 and <0.01-0.151 micromol O(6)-MedG/mol deoxyguanosine for normal and tumour DNA, respectively. Levels of O(6)-MedG in normal, but not tumour, DNA from the proximal colon were lower than those found in DNA from either the sigmoid colon (p=0.03) or rectum (p=0. 05). When the analysis was restricted to samples that contained O(6)-MedG, similar results were obtained in that O(6)-MedG levels in normal DNA were lower in the proximal colon than in the sigmoid colon (p=0.04) or rectum (p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: DNA alkylation varied within the large bowel possibly due to in situ NOC formation and was highest in areas of the colon and rectum where the highest incidence of large bowel tumours occurs, suggesting that DNA alkylation may play a role in the aetiology of colorectal cancer.
    • Host determinants of DNA alkylation and DNA repair activity in human colorectal tissue: O(6)-methylguanine levels are associated with GSTT1 genotype and O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity with CYP2D6 genotype.

      Povey, Andrew C; Hall, C Nicholas; Badawi, A F; Cooper, Donald P; Guppy, M J; Jackson, P E; O'Connor, Peter J; Margison, Geoffrey P; Cancer Research Campaign Carcinogenesis Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester M20 9BX, UK. andy.povey@man.ac.uk (2001-08-22)
      There is increasing evidence that alkylating agent exposure may increase large bowel cancer risk and factors which either alter such exposure or its effects may modify risk. Hence, in a cross-sectional study of 78 patients with colorectal disease, we have examined whether (i) metabolic genotypes (GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP2D6, CYP2E1) are associated with O(6)-methyldeoxyguanosine (O(6)-MedG) levels, O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (ATase) activity or K-ras mutations, and (ii) there was an association between ATase activity and O(6)-MedG levels. Patients with colon tumours and who were homozygous GSTT1(*)2 genotype carriers were more likely than patients who expressed GSTT1 to have their DNA alkylated (83 versus 32%, P=0.03) and to have higher O(6)-MedG levels (0.178+/-0.374 versus 0.016+/-0.023 micromol O(6)-MedG/mol dG, P=0.04) in normal, but not tumour, DNA. No such association was observed between the GSTT1 genotype and the frequency of DNA alkylation or O(6)-MedG levels in patients with benign colon disease or rectal tumours. Patients with colon tumours or benign colon disease who were CYP2D6-poor metabolisers had higher ATase activity in normal tissue than patients who were CYP2D6 extensive metabolisers or CYP2D6 heterozygotes. Patients with the CYP2E1 Dra cd genotype were less likely to have a K-ras mutation: of 55 patients with the wild-type CYP2E1 genotype (dd), 23 had K-ras mutations, whereas none of the 7 individuals with cd genotype had a K-ras mutation (P=0.04). No other associations were observed between GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 Pst genotypes and adduct levels, ATase activity or mutational status. O(6)-MedG levels were not associated with ATase activity in either normal or tumour tissue. However, in 15 patients for whom both normal and tumour DNA contained detectable O(6)-MedG levels, there was a strong positive association between the normal DNA/tumour DNA adduct ratio and the normal tissue/tumour tissue ATase ratio (r(2)=0.66, P=0.001). These results indicate that host factors can affect levels both of the biologically effective dose arising from methylating agent exposure and of a susceptibility factor, the DNA repair phenotype.
    • O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity in schistosomiasis-associated human bladder cancer.

      Badawi, A F; Cooper, Donald P; Mostafa, M H; Aboul-Azm, T; Barnard, R J; Margison, Geoffrey P; O'Connor, Peter J; National Center for Toxicology, Jefferson, Arkansas. (1994)
      O6-Alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (ATase) activity was measured in extracts of 55 bladder tissue samples (46 tumour and nine uninvolved mucosal tissue) from Egyptian patients with schistosome-associated bladder carcinoma. Activity varied from 2.0 to 16.2 fmole ATase/microgram DNA (mean +/- S.D.; 5.6 +/- 4.0) or from 28 to 351 fmole ATase/mg (117 +/- 71). ATase levels in schistosome-associated bladder cancer tissues (5.6 +/- 4.0 fmole ATase/microgram DNA) tended to be lower than those observed in normal human bladder mucosal tissue (8.5 +/- 4.4 fmole ATase/microgram DNA). In a previous study (Badawi et al., Carcinogenesis, 1992, 13, 877-881) DNA-alkylation damage (O6-methyldeoxyguanosine) was found in 44/46 of these schistosome-associated bladder cancer samples at levels ranging from 0.012 to 0.485 mumole O6-MedG/mole deoxyguanosine. We now report an inverse correlation between the levels of methylation damage and ATase activity (r = -0.67; P < 0.001). These observations encourage further investigations of the possible role of environmental alkylating agents in the aetiology of early bladder cancer associated with schistosomiasis.