Jelínek, Jaroslav; Fairbairn, Leslie J; Dexter, T Michael; Rafferty, Joseph A; Stocking, C; Ostertag, W; Margison, Geoffrey P (1996-03-01)
A human O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (ATase) cDNA-containing retrovirus was used to infect murine long-term primary bone marrow cultures. High levels of ATase expression were obtained, and colony-forming cells of the granulocyte-macrophage lineage from the cultures transduced with the human ATase retrovirus were three times more resistant to the alkylating agent, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), than control cultures. Furthermore, expression of the human ATase protected long-term hematopoiesis, measured as the output of progenitor cells to the nonadherent fraction of the culture, against the cytotoxic effects of repeated exposures to MNU. These results clearly show that a human ATase cDNA-containing retrovirus can be used to infect long-term primary bone marrow cultures and that this attenuates their sensitivity to nitrosoureas.
The effects of treatment of mice with O6-benzylguanine (O6-BeG) on the levels of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (ATase) in the hematopoietic compartment and on the in vivo sensitivity of hematopoietic progenitor cells to the toxic and clastogenic effects of the antitumor agents 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-nitrosourea (BCNU) and temozolomide were studied. When the overall effects of BCNU alone or with O6-BeG pretreatment were compared, dose potentiating factors of 4.17 for marrow cellularity, 4.57 for granulocyte macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFC) and 8.25 for colony forming unit-spleen (CFU-S) in O6-BeG pretreated versus nonpretreated animals were observed. A similar trend of dose potentiation was observed for temozolomide, although it was of lower magnitude: 1.20 for marrow cellularity, 1.63 for GM-CFC, and 1.68 for CFU-S. When the clastogenic effects of BCNU and temozolomide were examined in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay, a significantly (P < .05 to .001) higher frequency of micronuclei formation was observed in mice that received O6-BeG pretreatment compared with mice that received no pretreatment. These data suggest that the use of O6-BeG as a tumor-sensitizing agent before treatment of patients with O6-alkylating agents may lead to more severe hematological toxicity and possibly to an increased incidence of secondary leukemias as a result of elevated mutation frequencies in these patients.
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