• Triplet-states of ubiquinone analogs studied by ultraviolet and electron nanosecond irradiation

      Amouyal, E; Bensasson, R; Land, Edward J; ER98 Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, Universite de Paris VI, 91405-Orsay, France (1974)
    • Tritiated thymidine and bromodeoxyuridine double-labelling studies on growth factors and oral epithelial proliferation in the mouse.

      Thomson, P J; McGurk, Mark; Potten, Christopher S; Walton, G M; Appleton, D R; Oral and MaxilloFacial Surgery, The Dental School, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. (1999-09)
      Mouse tongue epithelium is characterized by a circadian variation in the number of cells undergoing DNA synthesis. Groups of male BDF1 mice were followed over 48 h and a double-labelling method with tritiated thymidine and bromodeoxyuridine used to determine S-phase labelling indices, together with cell influx to and cell efflux from S, at 4-hourly time points. Control animals exhibited diurnal peaks in labelling index at 03:00 with trough activity 12 h later at 15:00. Cell influx peaked at 23:00 with troughs occurring between 11:00 to 15:00. Peak cell efflux occurred at 07:00 with trough activity at 19:00. Animals injected with epidermal growth factor at 05:00 demonstrated a significant fall in both influx and efflux throughout the 48-h period (P < 0.001), but with preservation of labelling indices, suggesting a slower transit of cells through S-phase, whereas epidermal growth factor injected at 15:00 only produced a significant rise in cell-efflux values. Adrenergic stimulation by intravenous phenylephrine/isoprenaline injection at both 05:00 and 15:00 resulted in a significant rise in cell efflux (P < 0.001), although there was also a rise in labelling index in the 15:00 group (P < 0.001). Animals injected with calmodulin at 05:00 demonstrated a significant reduction in labelling index throughout the 48-h period (P < 0.001), but maintained control values for cell influx and efflux, suggesting faster transit of cells through S. Calmodulin injection at 15:00 produced only a significant reduction in cell influx (P < 0.001). Administration of exogenous growth factors significantly alters the normal rhythmical proliferation of oral epithelial cells in a mouse model. These effects appear to be both growth factor- and time-dependent, and may have both physiological and pathological implications.
    • Trophoblast glycoprotein recognised by monoclonal antibody 5T4 maps to human chromosome 6q14-q15.

      Boyle, John M; Grzeschik, K H; Heath, P R; Morten, J E; Stern, Peter L; Department of Biochemical Genetics, Paterson Institute of Cancer Research, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester, UK. (1990-04)
      Human X rodent hybrids were stained by indirect immunofluorescence with 5T4, a murine monoclonal antibody that recognises a 72 kdalton glycoprotein expressed by human trophoblasts and a very restricted range of adult tissues; they were analysed by flow cytometry. Concordance analysis supported by segregation data allowed assignment of the gene controlling glycoprotein expression (M6P1) to chromosome 6. Similar analysis with translocation hybrids gave a regional assignment to 6q14-q15. M6P1 is distinct from NT5, coding for 5' nucleotidase, which maps to the same region.
    • TSLC1 gene silencing in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical neoplasia.

      Steenbergen, R D; Kramer, D; Braakhuis, B J; Stern, Peter L; Verheijen, René H; Meijer, C J; Snijders, P J; Department of Pathology, Unit of Molecular Pathology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. r.steenbergen@vumc.nl (2004-02-18)
      BACKGROUND: Cervical carcinogenesis is initiated by infection with high-risk (i.e., carcinogenic) human papillomavirus (HPV) types. The subsequent progression from premalignant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to invasive cancer is driven by both genetic and epigenetic processes. We assessed the role of the gene encoding the adhesion molecule tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) in this progression. METHODS: We analyzed TSLC1 gene expression by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, promoter methylation by sodium bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing, and allelic loss by microsatellite analysis in primary keratinocytes, in four non-tumorigenic HPV-immortalized human keratinocyte cell lines, and in 11 human cervical cancer cell lines that were positive for a high-risk HPV DNA type and in normal cervical epithelial cells. We transfected cervical cancer SiHa cells that did not express TSLC1 mRNA with an expression vector containing the TSLC1 complementary DNA (cDNA) or an empty vector and analyzed transfectants for anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice. We also examined TSLC1 promoter methylation in premalignant cervical lesions and in cervical carcinomas and smears. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: TSLC1 mRNA was strongly reduced, relative to levels in primary keratinocytes, or absent in 10 (91%) of 11 cervical carcinoma cell lines but in none (0%) of the four HPV-immortalized cell lines (difference = 91%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 74% to 100%; P =.004). The TSLC1 promoter was hypermethylated, relative to normal foreskin and cervical epithelial cells, in nine (82%) of the 11 cervical carcinoma cell lines but in none (0%) of the four HPV-immortalized cell lines (difference = 82%, 95 CI = 59% to 100%; P =.01). Seven (88%, 95% CI = 47% to 100%) of the eight SiHa/TSLC1 transfectants displayed a marked reduction in anchorage-independent growth (i.e., 0-100 colonies per 5000 cells) compared with none of the four (0%, 95% CI = 0% to 60%) SiHa transfectants bearing the empty vector (i.e., SiHa/hygro transfectants; difference = 88%, 95% CI = 65% to 100%; P =.01) or untransfected SiHa cells. All seven mice (100%, 95% CI = 59% to 100%) injected with untransfected SiHa cells or SiHa/hygro transfectants displayed tumors of at least 50 mm(3) by 2-6 weeks after injection compared with none of eight mice (0%, 95% CI = 0% to 37%) injected with the SiHa/TSLC1 transfectants (difference = 100%, 95% CI = 68% to 100%; P<.001). We detected TSLC1 promoter hypermethylation in seven (35%, 95% CI = 15% to 59%) of 20 high-grade CIN lesions (i.e., CIN II and III) and in 30 (58%, 95% CI = 43% to 71%) of 52 cervical squamous cell carcinomas compared with none (0%, 95% CI = 0% to 34%) of nine normal cervical epithelial biopsy samples and none (0%, 95% CI = 0% to 22%) of 12 CIN I lesions (P<.001 for cervical squamous cell cancer versus normal epithelial biopsy samples plus CIN I lesions). CONCLUSIONS: TSLC1 gene silencing via promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in the progression from high-risk HPV-containing, high-grade CIN lesions to invasive cervical cancer.
    • TTC5 is required to prevent apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells.

      Lynch, J T; Somerville, Tim D D; Spencer, Gary J; Huang, Xu; Somervaille, Tim C P; Cancer Research UK Leukaemia Biology Laboratory, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. (2013)
      Using a screening strategy, we identified the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif protein, Tetratricopeptide repeat domain 5 (TTC5, also known as stress responsive activator of p300 or Strap) as required for the survival of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. TTC5 is a stress-inducible transcription cofactor known to interact directly with the histone acetyltransferase EP300 to augment the TP53 response. Knockdown (KD) of TTC5 induced apoptosis of both murine and human AML cells, with concomitant loss of clonogenic and leukemia-initiating potential; KD of EP300 elicited a similar phenotype. Consistent with the physical interaction of TTC5 and EP300, the onset of apoptosis following KD of either gene was preceded by reduced expression of BCL2 and increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes. Forced expression of BCL2 blocked apoptosis and partially rescued the clonogenic potential of AML cells following TTC5 KD. KD of both genes also led to the accumulation of MYC, an acetylation target of EP300, and the form of MYC that accumulated exhibited relative hypoacetylation at K148 and K157, residues targeted by EP300. In view of the ability of excess cellular MYC to sensitize cells to apoptosis, our data suggest a model whereby TTC5 and EP300 cooperate to prevent excessive accumulation of MYC in AML cells and their sensitization to cell death. They further reveal a hitherto unappreciated role for TTC5 in leukemic hematopoiesis.
    • Tubulin as a target for anticancer drugs: agents which interact with the mitotic spindle.

      Jordan, Allan M; Hadfield, John A; Lawrence, N J; McGown, Alan T; Department of Chemistry, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, UK. (1998-07)
      Tubulin is the biochemical target for several clinically used anticancer drugs, including paclitaxel and the vinca alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine. This review describes both the natural and synthetic agents which are known to interact with tubulin. Syntheses of the more complex agents are referenced and the potential clinical use of the compounds is discussed. This review describes the biochemistry of tubulin, microtubules, and the mitotic spindle. The agents are discussed in relation to the type of binding site on the protein with which they interact. These are the colchicine, vinca alkaloid, rhizoxin/maytansine, and tubulin sulfhydryl binding sites. Also included are the agents which either bind at other sites or unknown sites on tubulin. The literature is reviewed up to October 1997.
    • Tubulin-binding dibenz[c,e]oxepines as colchinol analogues for targeting tumour vasculature.

      Edwards, David J; Hadfield, John A; Wallace, T; Ducki, S; School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK M13 9PL. (2011-01-07)
      Various methoxy- and hydroxy-substituted dibenz[c,e]oxepines were prepared via the copper(I)-induced coupling of ether-tethered arylstannanes or the dehydrative cyclisation of 1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-dimethanols, assembled using the Ullmann cross-coupling of ortho-bromoaryl carbonyl compounds. The dibenzoxepines were screened for their ability to inhibit tubulin polymerisation and the in vitro growth of K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. The most active was 5,7-dihydro-3,9,10,11-tetramethoxydibenz[c,e]oxepin-4-ol, whose tubulin inhibitory and cytotoxicity (IC(50)) values were 1 μM and 40 nM, respectively.
    • Tumor apoptosis in cervical cancer: its role as a prognostic factor in 42 radiotherapy patients.

      Kim, Joo-Young; Cho, Hyun Yee; Lee, Kyu Chan; Hwang, You Jin; Lee, Myung Hak; Roberts, Stephen A; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Department of Radiation Oncology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon Medical College, Inchon, Korea. (2001-10-20)
      To investigate tumor apoptosis as a prognostic factor for outcome following radiation therapy, comparisons were made of apoptotic index (AI) as a predictor of short- vs. long-term response and pretreatment vs. radiation-induced apoptosis. Forty-two patients with proven squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated by radiation alone. Apoptosis was measured by light microscopic observation of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from biopsies taken before treatment and 4 and 24 hr after 2 Gy. Patients were evaluated at the end of the external radiation for determination of short-term response and for long-term outcome as well (median follow-up of 27 months). Patients with high spontaneous AI showed poor short-term response, local control, and survival. The significance of AI as a predictor of short-term response was lost after allowing for differences in tumor size. The positive predictive value of AI for local control and survival was independent of tumor size and stage. High AI was associated with poor local control and long-term prognosis in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. The in vivo radiation-induced AI after 4 or 24 hr did not predict radiation therapy outcome.
    • Tumor cells induce the cancer associated fibroblast phenotype via caveolin-1 degradation: Implications for breast cancer and DCIS therapy with autophagy inhibitors.

      Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pavlides, Stephanos; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Daumer, Kristin M; Milliman, Janet N; Chiavarina, Barbara; Migneco, Gemma; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Martinez-Cantarin, Maria P; Flomenberg, Neal; et al. (2010-06-12)
      Loss of stromal caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is a novel biomarker for cancer-associated fibroblasts that predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer and DCIS patients. We hypothesized that epithelial cancer cells may have the ability to drive Cav-1 downregulation in adjacent normal fibroblasts, thereby promoting the cancer associated fibroblast phenotype. To test this hypothesis directly, here we developed a novel co-culture model employing (i) human breast cancer cells (MCF7), and (ii) immortalized fibroblasts (hTERT-BJ1), which are grown under defined experimental conditions. Importantly, we show that co-culture of immortalized human fibroblasts with MCF7 breast cancer cells leads to Cav-1 downregulation in fibroblasts. These results were also validated using primary cultures of normal human mammary fibroblasts co-cultured with MCF7 cells. In this system, we show that Cav-1 downregulation is mediated by autophagic/lysosomal degradation, as pre-treatment with lysosome-specific inhibitors rescues Cav-1 expression. Functionally, we demonstrate that fibroblasts co-cultured with MCF7 breast cancer cells acquire a cancer associated fibroblast phenotype, characterized by Cav-1 downregulation, increased expression of myofibroblast markers and extracellular matrix proteins, and constitutive activation of TGFbeta/Smad2 signaling. siRNA-mediated Cav-1 downregulation mimics several key changes that occur in co-cultured fibroblasts, clearly indicating that a loss of Cav-1 is a critical initiating factor, driving stromal fibroblast activation during tumorigenesis. As such, this co-culture system can now be used as an experimental model for generating "synthetic" cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs). More specifically, these "synthetic" CAFs could be used for drug screening to identify novel therapeutics that selectively target the Cav-1-negative tumor micro-environment. Our findings also suggest that chloroquine, or other autophagy/lysosome inhibitors, may be useful as anti-cancer agents, to therapeutically restore the expression of stromal Cav-1 in cancer associated fibroblasts. We discuss this possibility, in light of the launch of a new clinical trial that uses chloroquine to treat DCIS patients: PINC (Preventing Invasive Breast Neoplasia with Cholorquine) [See http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01023477].
    • Tumor growth rate (TGR) to monitor growth/predict response to lanreotide autogel use before, during and after PRRT in advanced GEP-NETS: data from the PRELUDE study

      Bodei, L; Srirajaskanthan, R; Grana, CM; Baldari, S; Shah, T; Lamarca, Angela; Courbon, F; Scheidhauer, K; Baudin, E; Roussy, G; et al. (2020)
    • Tumor infiltrating regulatory T cells: tractable targets for immunotherapy.

      Khan, A R; Dovedi, Simon J; Wilkinson, R W; Pritchard, D I; Doctoral Training Centre for Targeted Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. (2010-10)
      Several studies have linked tumor-infiltration by regulatory T cells with poor patient outcome. Targeting the mechanisms by which regulatory T cells traffic to and persist in the tumor may circumvent tumor immune-escape by de-restricting T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In this review, we describe the principle axes that govern regulatory T cell migration and the mechanisms that underpin their immunosuppressive activity in cancer. Inhibiting either the migration or function of regulatory T cells may enhance host-anti-cancer immune responses and as such are attractive and tractable targets for therapeutic intervention.
    • Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a critical component of interleukin 13-mediated protective T helper cell type 2 responses during helminth infection.

      Artis, David; Humphreys, Neil E; Bancroft, Allison J; Rothwell, Nancy J; Potten, Christopher S; Grencis, Richard K; Immunology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom. mqbsszda@man.ac.uk (1999-10-04)
      In vivo manipulation of cytokine and/or cytokine receptor expression has previously shown that resistance to infection with the caecum-dwelling helminth Trichuris muris is dependent on interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 while susceptibility is associated with a T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine response. Using gene-targeted mice deficient in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor signaling and anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody treatment, we have extended these studies to reveal a critical role for TNF-alpha in regulation of Th2 cytokine-mediated host protection. In vivo blockade of TNF-alpha in normally resistant mice, although not altering IL-4, IL-5, or IL-13 production in the draining lymph node, significantly delayed worm expulsion for the duration of treatment. IL-13-mediated worm expulsion in IL-4 knockout (KO) mice was also shown to be TNF-alpha dependent, and could be enhanced by administration of recombinant TNF-alpha. Furthermore, TNF receptor KO mice failed to expel T. muris, producing high levels of parasite-specific immunoglobulin G2a and the generation of a predominantly Th1 response, suggesting that the absence of TNF function from the onset of infection dramatically alters the phenotype of the response. These results provide the first demonstration of the role of TNF-alpha in regulating Th2 cytokine-mediated responses at mucosal sites, and have implications for the design of rational therapies against helminth infection and allergy.
    • Tumor O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase inactivation by oral lomeguatrib.

      Watson, Amanda J; Sabharwal, Ami; Thorncroft, Mary R; McGown, Gail; Kerr, Richard; Bojanic, Stana; Soonawalla, Zahir; King, Alexandra; Miller, Andrea; Waller, Sue; et al. (2010-01-15)
      PURPOSE: A major mechanism of resistance to chlorethylnitrosureas and methylating agents involves the DNA repair protein O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). We sought to determine the dose of oral 6-(4-bromo-2-thienyl) methoxy purin-2-amine (lomeguatrib), a pseudosubstrate inactivator of MGMT, required to render active protein undetectable 12 hours after dosing in prostate, primary central nervous system (CNS), and colorectal cancer patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Lomeguatrib was administered orally as a single dose (20-160 mg) approximately 12 hours before tumor resection. Dose escalation was projected to continue until grade 2 toxicity or until complete inactivation of tumor MGMT was encountered. Total MGMT protein levels were quantified by ELISA, and active protein levels were quantified by biochemical assay. MGMT promoter methylation was determined in glioblastoma DNA by methylation-specific PCR. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients were dosed with lomeguatrib, and 32 informative tumor samples were obtained. Mean total MGMT level varied between tumor types: 554 +/- 404 fmol/mg protein (+/-SD) for prostate cancer, 87.4 +/- 40.3 fmol/mg protein for CNS tumors, and 244 +/- 181 fmol/mg protein for colorectal cancer. MGMT promoter hypermethylation did not correlate with total protein expression. Consistent total MGMT inactivation required 120 mg of lomeguatrib in prostate and colorectal cancers. Complete consistent inactivation in CNS tumors was observed only at the highest dose of lomeguatrib (160 mg). CONCLUSIONS: Total MGMT inactivation can be achieved in prostate, primary CNS, and colorectal cancers with a single administration of 120 or 160 mg lomeguatrib. The dose needed did not correlate with mean total MGMT protein concentrations. One hundred twenty to 160 mg/d of lomeguatrib should be administered to achieve total MGMT inactivation in future studies.
    • Tumor radiosensitizers--current status of development of various approaches: report of an International Atomic Energy Agency meeting.

      Horsman, Michael R; Bohm, Lothar; Margison, Geoffrey P; Milas, Luka; Rosier, Jean-Francois; Safrany, Geza; Selzer, Edgar; Verheij, Marcel; Hendry, Jolyon H; Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. (2006-02-01)
      PURPOSE: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a Technical Meeting of Consultants to (1) discuss a selection of relatively new agents, not those well-established in clinical practice, that operated through a variety of mechanisms to sensitize tumors to radiation and (2) to compare and contrast their tumor efficacy, normal tissue toxicity, and status of development regarding clinical application. The aim was to advise the IAEA as to which developing agent or class of agents would be worth promoting further, by supporting additional laboratory research or clinical trials, with the eventual goal of improving cancer control rates using radiotherapy, in developing countries in particular. RESULTS: The agents under discussion included a wide, but not complete, range of different types of drugs, and antibodies that interfered with molecules in cell signaling pathways. These were contrasted with new molecular antisense and gene therapy strategies. All the drugs discussed have previously been shown to act as tumor cell radiosensitizers or to kill hypoxic cells present in tumors. CONCLUSION: Specific recommendations were made for more preclinical studies with certain of the agents and for clinical trials that would be suitable for industrialized countries, as well as trials that were considered more appropriate for developing countries.
    • Tumor targeted gene therapy with plasmid expressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha in vitro and in vivo.

      Pastorakova, A; Hlubinova, K; Bodo, J; Libby, J; Rychly, B; Margison, Geoffrey P; Altaner, C; Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 833 91 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. exonada@savba.sk (2005)
      We have assessed the effect of exogenous human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNFalpha) in three human cancer cell lines; MDA-MB-361 (breast adenocarcinoma), HCT 116 (colon carcinoma) and 8-MG-BA (glioma). In vitro transfection of a plasmid containing hTNFalpha under the control of a hybrid promoter resulted in expression of hTNFalpha gene in all three cell lines and secretion into the culture medium was seen with MDA-MB-361 cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed a significant increase in apoptotic and necrotic cells in MDA-MB-361 and to a lesser extent in HCT 116 cells. Increased apoptosis was confirmed by an increase in pro-caspase 3 activation. No effects of hTNFalpha expression were seen in 8-MG-BA cells. Intratumoral delivery of the hTNFalpha expression plasmid into MDA-MB-361 tumor xenografts grown in nude mice caused hemorrhagic tumor necrosis. This strategy may be a simple and promising gene therapy approach to the treatment of some human tumors.
    • Tumor vascularity: a histological measure of angiogenesis and hypoxia.

      West, Catharine M L; Cooper, Rachel A; Loncaster, Juliette A; Wilks, Deepti P; Bromley, Michael; Cancer Research Campaign Experimental Radiation Oncology Group, Paterson Institute, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. cwest@picr.man.ac.uk (2001-04-01)
      In this study we sought to clarify the relationship between tumor vascularity, hypoxia, and angiogenesis in human cervix tumors. Two hypotheses were established: first, that measurement of tumor vascularity can provide a histological assessment of both hypoxia and angiogenesis; and second, that expression of angiogenesis-related proteins will provide a surrogate measure of tumor hypoxia. To test the first hypothesis, we studied the prognostic significance of tumor vascularity measured as both intercapillary distance (ICD; thought to reflect tumor oxygenation) and microvessel density (MVD; the hotspot method that provides a histological assessment of tumor angiogenesis). The relationship was also examined of tumor hypoxia, measured using an Eppendorf needle electrode [percentage of values less than 5 mm Hg (HP5)], with ICD and MVD. To test the second hypothesis we examined the relationship between HP5 and the expression of angiogenesis-associated proteins [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF)]. All of the biological measurements were made on pretreatment tumors. Analysis of data was carried out using log-rank statistics, Cox multivariate analysis, and Spearman's rank correlation. Both ICD and MVD were significant independent prognostic factors for local control. Patients with poorly vascularized tumors (long ICD) had poor local control (P = 0.042). However, patients with poorly vascularized tumors, measured as low MVD, had good local control (P = 0.036). For 107 patients in whom both of the measurements were obtained on the same tumor sections, ICD and MVD provided independent prognostic information in multivariate analysis. There was a significant correlation between tumor hypoxia and ICD (P < 0.005) but not MVD (P = 0.41). There was no relationship between hypoxia and the expression of angiogenic factors (VEGF, PD-ECGF). These analyses show that measurement of tumor vascularity can provide different biological information that is dependent on the method used. It is, therefore, important that studies measuring vascularity should include an appropriate definition. There is no relationship between hypoxia and angiogenesis in advanced carcinoma of the cervix and examining the levels of angiogenic proteins may not have a role in assessing hypoxia in cervix cancer.
    • Tumorigenic target cell regions in bone marrow studied by localized dosimetry of 239Pu, 241Am and 233U in the mouse femur.

      Lord, Brian I; Austin, A L; Ellender, Michele; Haines, J W; Harrison, J D; CRC Experimental Haematology Group, Paterson Institute Cancer Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Wilmslow Manchester M20 4BX, UK. blord@picr.man.ac.uk (2001-06)
      PURPOSE: To study the temporal change in microdistribution of plutonium-239, americium-241 and uranium-233 in the mouse distal femur and to compare and combine calculated radiation doses with those obtained previously for the femoral shaft. Also, to relate doses to relative risks of osteosarcoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computer-based image analysis of neutron-induced and alpha-track autoradiographs of sections of mouse femora was used to quantify the microdistribution of (239)Pu, (241)Am and (233)U from 1 to 448 days after intraperitoneal injection. Localized dose-rates and cumulative doses over this period were calculated for different regions of the marrow spaces in trabecular bone. The results were then combined with previous data for doses to the cortical marrow of the femoral shaft. A morphometric analysis of the distal femur was carried out. RESULTS: Initial deposition on endosteal surfaces and dose-rates near to the trabecular surfaces at 1 day were two to four times greater than corresponding results for cortical bone. Burial was most rapid for (233)U, about twice the rate in cortical bone. As in cortical bone, subsequent uptake into the marrow was seen for (239)Pu and (241)Am but not (233)U. Cumulative doses to 448 days for different regions of trabecular marrow were greater than corresponding values for cortical marrow for each radionuclide. Combined doses reflected the greater overall volume of cortical marrow. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative radiation doses to the 10 microm thick band of marrow adjacent to all endosteal surfaces were in the ratio of approximately 7:3:1 for (239)Pu:(241)Am:(233)U. This ratio is not inconsistent with observed incidences of osteosarcoma induction by the three nuclides. Analysis of doses to different depths of marrow, however, showed that although ratios were probably not significantly different to that for a 10 microm depth, better correlations with osteosarcomagenic risk were obtained with 20-40 microm depths. For acute myeloid leukaemia, the closest relationship between relative risk and doses was obtained by considering only the central 5-10% of marrow, which gave a dose ratio of approximately 12:11:1 for (239)Pu:(241)Am:(233)U respectively.
    • Tumour induction by methyl-nitroso-urea following preconceptional paternal contamination with plutonium-239.

      Lord, Brian I; Woolford, Lorna B; Wang, L; Stones, V A; McDonald, D; Lorimore, S A; Papworth, D; Wright, Eric G; Scott, David; CRC Department of Experimental Haematology, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK. (1998-08)
      We have investigated the possibility that transgenerational effects from preconceptional paternal irradiation (PPI) may render offspring more vulnerable to secondary exposure to an unrelated carcinogen. 239Pu (0, 128 or 256 Bq g(-1)) was administered by intravenous injection to male mice, 12 weeks before mating with normal females. Two strains of mouse were used -- CBA/H and BDF1. Haemopoietic spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) and fibroblastoid colony-forming units (CFU-F), a component of their regulatory microenvironment, were assayed independently in individual offspring at 6, 12 and 19 weeks of age. Bone marrow and spleen from each of these mice were grown in suspension culture for 2 or 7 days for assessment of chromosomal aberrations. Female BDF1 were injected with methyl-nitroso-urea (MNU) as a secondary carcinogen at 10 weeks of age and monitored for onset of leukaemia/lymphoma. Mean values of CFU-S and CFU-F were unaffected by preconceptional paternal plutonium-239 (PP-239Pu), although for CFU-F in particular there was an apparent increase in variation between individual animals. There was significant evidence of an increase in chromosomal aberrations with dose in bone marrow but not in spleen. By 250 days, 68% of MNU-treated control animals (no PPI) had developed thymic lymphoma (62%) or leukaemia (38%). The first case arose 89 days after MNU administration. In the groups with PPI, leukaemia/lymphoma developed from 28 days earlier, rising to 90% by 250 days. Leukaemia (65%) now predominated over lymphoma (35%). This second generation excess of leukaemia appears to be the result of PPI and may be related to inherited changes that affect the development of haemopoietic stem cells.
    • Tumour oxygenation levels correlate with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging parameters in carcinoma of the cervix.

      Cooper, Rachel A; Carrington, Bernadette M; Loncaster, Juliette A; Todd, Susan M; Davidson, Susan E; Logue, John P; Luthra, Asha D; Jones, Andrew P; Stratford, Ian J; Hunter, Robin D; et al. (2000-10)
      BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Eppendorf pO(2) histograph is the 'gold standard' method for measuring tumour oxygenation. The method is not suitable for widespread application because its use is limited to accessible tumours. A non-invasive imaging technique would be an attractive alternative. Therefore, the relationships between tumour oxygenation and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised 30 patients with carcinoma of the cervix. Tumour oxygenation was measured pre-treatment as median pO(2) and the proportion of values less than 5 mmHg (HP5) using a pO(2) histograph. Repeat measurements were obtained for nine patients following 40-45 Gy external beam radiotherapy giving a total of 39 measurements. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using gadolinium was performed prior to obtaining the oxygenation data. Time/signal intensity curves were generated to obtain two standard parameters: maximum enhancement over baseline (SI-I) and the rate of enhancement (SI-I/s). RESULTS: Using the 39 measurements, there was a significant correlation between SI-I and both median pO(2) (r=0.59; P<0.001) and HP5 (r=-0. 49; P=0.002). There was a weak, borderline significant correlation between SI-I/s and both median pO(2) (r=0.29; P=0.071) and HP5 (r=-0. 34; P=0.037). There was a significant relationship between tumour size and SI-I (r=0.54; P<0.001), but not SI-I/s. In 29 tumours, where data were available, there was no relationship between histological assessment of tumour angiogenesis (intra-tumour microvessel density; IMD) and either MRI parameter. CONCLUSIONS: Tumour oxygenation levels measured using a pO(2) histograph correlate with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI parameters. Therefore, non-invasive dynamic MRI may be a method for measuring hypoxia in human tumours.
    • Tumour stem cells: the relevance of predictive assays for tumour control after radiotherapy.

      Hendry, Jolyon H; West, Catharine M L; Moore, James V; Potten, Christopher S; Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital (NHS) Trust, Manchester, UK. (1994-01)