• One-electron oxidation of flavins. A flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis study.

      Heelis, P F; Parsons, B; Phillips, G; Swallow, A John; Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester, M20 9BX, UK. (1986)
    • One-electron reactions in biochemical systems as studied by pulse radiolysis. VI. Stages in the reduction of ferricytochrome c.

      Land, Edward J; Swallow, A John; Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (1974-10-18)
    • One-electron reactions in some cobalamins.

      Blackburn, R; Erkol, A; Phillips, G O; Swallow, A John; Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, University of Salford, Salford, M5 4WT (1974)
    • One-electron reduction of 5-deazalumiflavin in aqueous solution: a pulse radiolysis study.

      Heelis, P F; Parsons, B J; Phillips, G O; Swallow, A John; Research Division, North East Wales Institute, Deeside, Clwyd, U.K. (1989-04)
      The one-electron reduction of 5-deazalumiflavin has been studied in aqueous solution in the acidity range H0 = -1 to pH 13 using the reducing species CO2-, e-aq and (CH3)2COH radicals. The spectral and other properties of the deazaflavin radicals formed were found to be independent of the reductant used. Four protolytic forms of the radical were distinguished with associated pKa values of 1.3 +/- 0.3, 6.0 +/- 0.3 and 10.7 +/- 0.3.
    • One-electron reduction of 8-hydroxy-5-deazaisoalloxazine in aqueous solution: a pulse radiolysis study.

      Heelis, P F; Parsons, B J; Swallow, A John; North East Wales Institute, Deeside, Clwyd, UK. (1991-03)
      The one-electron reduction of 8-hydroxy-5-deazaisoalloxazine (HMDI) has been studied in aqueous solution in the acidity range pH 0 to 13 using the reducing species CO2.-, eaq- and (CH3)2COH radicals. The spectral and other properties of the HMDI radicals were found to be independent of the reductant used. Four protolytic forms of the radical were distinguished with associated pKa values of 2.3 +/- 0.3, 6.0 +/- 0.3 and 10.1 +/- 0.3.
    • One-electron reduction of a ferrihaem.

      Butler, John; Jayson, G G; Swallow, A John (1976)
    • One-electron reduction of adriamycin and daunomycin: short-term stability of the semiquinones.

      Mukherjee, Tulsi; Land, Edward J; Swallow, A John; Bruce, J M; Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester, England. (1989-08-01)
      Pulse radiolysis studies of the one-electron reduction of adriamycin have now been extended to daunomycin. The daunomycin semiquinone has a pKa for phenolic dissociation of 2.8 +/- 0.1. Measurement of the one-electron reduction potential using several redox references at pH values within the range pH 6 to 12 indicated no significant difference between the semiquinones of adriamycin and those of daunomycin. A value of E1(7) = -341 +/- 15 mV (vs NHE) fitted the complete set of data for both compounds, with a pKa of the NH+3 group of the sugar moiety of 9.2 +/- 0.1. Measurement of equilibria between the semiquinones and the parent quinones and their fully reduced products showed a maximum semiquinone stability around pH 9. At pH 7 the stability constant is 0.04 for both adriamycin and daunomycin. From the equilibrium and E1 data, the second one-electron and the two-electron reduction potentials have been calculated over the pH range 7 to 12. E2(7) is -260 +/- 15 mV and Em7 is -300 +/- 15 mV for both compounds. The pKa values for the reduced anthracyclines have been calculated from the equilibrium data in the approximate pH range 7-12 to be 8.1 +/- 0.1 and 9.0 +/- 0.2 for the first two hydroxy groups and the two possible combinations for the ionization of the sugar NH+3 groups, with the remaining two hydroxy groups ionizing above pH 14.
    • One-electron reduction of adriamycin: properties of the semiquinone.

      Land, Edward J; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Swallow, A John; Bruce, J M; Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester M20 9BX (1983-08)
      Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions containing adriamycin and redox indicators of known one-electron reduction potential (E1) shows that its E1 at pH 7 is -328 mV (vs NHE). The variation E1 with pH in the range 6-12 shows that the net charge on the semiquinone at pH 7 is zero. As well as the pKa values of 2.9 and greater than or equal to 14 established independently, the semiquinone has a pKa close to 9.2. The new data enable the structure and likely reactivity of the semiquinone to be specified.
    • One-electron reduction of ferrideuterioporphyrin IX and reaction of the oxidized and reduced forms with chlorinated methyl radicals.

      Brault, D; Bizet, C; Morliere, P; Rougee, M; Land, Edward J; Santus, R; Swallow, A John; Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester M20 9BX, England (1980)
    • One-electron reduction of iron(II) porphyrin and characterization of iron(I) porphyrin in aqueous medium. Steady-state and pulse radiolysis studies

      Brault, D; Santus, R; Land, Edward J; Swallow, A John; Laboratoire de Biophysique, INSERM U201, CNRS ERA 951, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 75005 Paris, France (1984)
    • One-electron reduction of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone): A pulse radiolysis study

      Mukherjee, Tulsi; Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, CHristie Hospital & Holt Radium Institute, Manchester M20 9BX, England (1987)
    • The one-electron reduction potential of several substrates can be related to their reduction rates by cytochrome P-450 reductase.

      Butler, John; Hoey, Brigid M; CRC Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital, NHS Trust, Manchester, UK. (1993-01-15)
      The rates of reduction of 27 compounds by purified cytochrome P-450 reductase have been studied and correlated with the one-electron reduction potentials E7(X/X.-). For compounds with reduction potentials between approx. -400 and -165 mV, there was a good correlation between the rates and E7(X/X.-); log rate (mumol/min per mg) = (2.38 +/- 0.08) + (0.0061 +/- 0.0003)E7 (mV). Compounds with potentials more positive than -165 mV were shown to deviate from the correlation. It is shown that under the standard conditions of the assay, these compounds undergo two-electron reduction by NADPH rather than one-electron reduction with the enzyme. As a consequence of the study, the rate constants for the reaction of superoxide radicals with native and acetylated cytochrome c were also determined to be (4.5 +/- 0.5).10(5) and (1.5 +/- 0.15).10(5) M-1 s-1, respectively.
    • One-electron reduction potentials of dietary carotenoid radical cations in aqueous micellar environments.

      Burke, Marc; Edge, Ruth; Land, Edward J; McGarvey, David J; Truscott, T G; School of Chemistry and Physics, Keele University, UK. (2001-07-06)
      The one-electron reduction potentials of the radical cations of five dietary carotenoids (beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, astaxanthin and lycopene) in aqueous micellar environments have been obtained from a pulse radiolysis study of electron transfer between the carotenoids and tryptophan radical cations as a function of pH, and lie in the range of 980-1060 mV. These values are consistent with our observation that the carotenoid radical cations oxidise tyrosine and cysteine. The decays of the carotenoid radical cations in the absence of added reactants suggest a distribution of exponential lifetimes. The radicals persist for up to about 1 s, depending on the medium.
    • The one-electron reduction potentials of NAD.

      Farrington, J A; Land, Edward J; Swallow, A John; I.C.I. Plant Protection Division, Jealott's Hill Research Station, Bracknell, Berkshire, RG12 6EY U.K (1980-04-02)
      The one-electron reduction potential (E7 1) of NAD+ has been determined by pulse radiolysis to be -0.94 V. E7 2 (E7 1 for the free radical, NAD+) is +0.30 V. E7 1 for 1-methylisonicotinamide is -0.77 V.
    • One-pass list-mode EM algorithm for high-resolution 3-D PET image reconstruction into large arrays

      Reader, Andrew J; Ally, S; Manavaki, Roido; Walledge, R J; Jeavons, A P; Julyan, Peter J; Zhao, Sha; Hastings, David L; Zweit, Jamal; Paterson Institute for Cancer Research. Christie Hospital, Withington, Manchester M20 4BX, UK (2002)
      High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) positron emission tomography (PET) scanners with high count rate performance, such as the quad-high density avalanche chamber (HIDAC), place new demands on image reconstruction algorithms due to the large quantities of high-precision list-mode data which are produced. Therefore, a reconstruction algorithm is required which can, in a practical time frame, reconstruct into very large image arrays (submillimeter voxels, which range over a large field of view) whilst preferably retaining the precision of the data. This work presents an algorithm which meets these demands: one-pass list-mode expectation maximization (OPL-EM) algorithm. The algorithm operates directly on list-mode data, passes through the data once only, accounts for finite resolution effects in the system model, and can also include regularization. The algorithm performs multiple image updates during its single pass through the list-mode data, corresponding to the number of subsets that the data have been split into. The algorithm has been assessed using list-mode data from a quad-HIDAC and is compared to the analytic reconstruction method 3-D reprojection (RP) with 3-D filtered backprojection.
    • One-to-one registration of en-face optical coherence tomography attenuation coefficients with histology of a prostatectomy specimen

      Swaan, A; Muller, BG; Wilk, LS; Almasian, M; van Kollenburg, RAA; Zwartkruis, E; Rozendaal, LR; de Bruin, DM; Faber, DJ; van Leeuwen, TG; et al. (2018)
      Optical coherence tomography (OCT), enables high-resolution 3D imaging of the morphology of light scattering tissues. From the OCT signal, parameters can be extracted and related to tissue structures. One of the quantitative parameters is the attenuation coefficient; the rate at which the intensity of detected light decays in depth. To couple the quantitative parameters with the histology one-to-one registration is needed. The primary aim of this study is to validate a registration method of quantitative OCT parameters to histological tissue outcome through one-to-one registration of OCT with histology. We matched OCT images of unstained fixated prostate tissue slices with corresponding histology slides, wherein different histologic types were demarcated. Attenuation coefficients were determined by a supervised automated exponential fit (corrected for point spread function and sensitivity roll-off related signal losses) over a depth of 0.32?mm starting from 0.10 mm below the automatically detected tissue edge. Finally, the attenuation coefficients corresponding to the different tissue types of the prostate were compared. From the attenuation coefficients, we produced the squared relative residue and goodness-of-fit metric R2 . This article explains the method to perform supervised automated quantitative analysis of OCT data, and the one-to-one registration of OCT extracted quantitative data with histopathological outcomes.
    • An open phase I study to assess the biological effects of a continuous intravenous infusion of Interleukin-3 followed by Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor.

      Bretti, S; Gilleece, M H; Kamthan, A; Fitzsimmons, L; Hicks, F; Rowlands, M; Bishop, P; Picardo, A M; Dexter, T Michael; Scarffe, J Howard; et al. (1996-06)
      To assess any synergistic stimulatory effect in vivo of Interleukin 3 (IL-3) and Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) upon white cell and platelet counts, toxicity and antitumour effect, we conducted this phase I study. IL-3 0.25, 0.5 or 5 micrograms/kg/day for 1, 4 or 7 days was given by continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion to 35 patients with advanced malignancy. 21 of the 35 patients also received sequential or overlapping treatment with continuous i.v. infusion of GM-CSF 1 or 3 micrograms/kg/day for up to 10 days. Monotherapy with IL-3 producted significant dose related increases in platelets and white cell counts. Combinations of IL-3 and GM-CSF also produced increases in white cell counts, but these were no greater than would be expected following GM-CSF treatment alone. There was a trend for platelets to increase more in patients receiving IL-3 and GM-CSF than those receiving IL-3 alone, but this did not reach statistical significance. In general, IL-3 and combinations of IL-3 and GM-CSF were well tolerated and the most common side-effect was fever. A maximum tolerated dose was not reached and antitumour effects were not seen. Future studies using combinations of IL-3 5 micrograms/kg/day and GM-CSF 3 micrograms/kg/day may help to define the optimal therapeutic regimen.
    • An open-label extension study to evaluate safety and efficacy of Pazopanib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

      Sternberg, C; Davis, I; Deen, K; Sigal, E; Hawkins, Robert E; 1Department of Medical Oncology, San Camillo and Forlanini Hospitals, Rome, Italy (2014)
      Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of pazopanib, a multikinase angiogenesis inhibitor, in a single-arm, open-label, extension study (VEG107769/NCT00387764) for placebo-treated patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study (VEG105192/NCT00334282).
    • Opportunities to improve immune-based prevention of HPV-associated cancers

      Stern, Peter L; Roden, RB; Division of Molecular & Clinical Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, University of Manchester, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX, (2019)
      Immunization of adolescent girls with VLP vaccines, made of L1 proteins from the most medically significant high risk HPV types, is a major strategy for prevention of cervical cancer plus other HPV-associated cancers. Maximal population impact, including through herd immunity, requires high vaccination coverage. However, protection of unvaccinated women requires secondary prevention through cytology screening. Unfortunately in countries with the highest incidence/mortality due to cervical cancer HPV vaccination (or cytology screening) is not sufficiently available. Vaccination programme costs and a lack of accessibility of the populations for immunization remain significant hurdles. Several approaches could increase effective implementation of HPV vaccination. 1) Use of a single immunization of the current VLP vaccines. 2) Vaccination bundled with other paediatric vaccines with lower dosage to facilitate delivery, improve coverage and reduce costs through established logistics. 3) Local manufacture with lower cost systems (e.g. bacteria) for VLP or capsomer based vaccine production and utilization of additional protective epitopes (e.g L2) for increasing breadth of protection. However, all the latter need appropriate clinical validation. Gender neutral vaccination and extending routine vaccination strategies to women up to age 30 years in combination with at least one HPV screening test can also hasten impact on cancer incidence.